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This is a discussion on (Compulsion) within the Islamic Law forums, part of the Islamic Knowledge category; What is Ikrah in the Shari3a and when is one mukrah? Can anyone ...

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    What is Ikrah in the Shari3a and when is one mukrah?
    Can anyone get what the 3ulamaa of the salaf said regarding ikrah?

  2. #2
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    Jan 2008


    Quote Originally Posted by abusafiyya View Post

    What Is Ikrah In The Shari3a And When Is One Mukrah?
    Can Anyone Get What The 3ulamaa Of The Salaf Said Regarding Ikrah?

    As Salaamu Alayka,

    Akheel Kareem, I happen to be reading and translating from Sharh as-Siyar al-Kabeer these days, and so I recalled immediately coming across this issue in this book.

    I am not a Hanafi, however, I know this book to contain very sound opinions on issues, may Allah have mercy on 'Imaam Sarakhsee.

    There are a lot of side issues here, and this is in no way an exhaustive quote, however, it may be informative, and it is the entire chapter's translation.

    What seems clear to me is this 'Imaam's opinion that a person is not excused from sinning for relenting when being forced in situations where rukhsah (I translated this as 'lightening' of the command/prohibition) is not explicitly given by the Book and/or the Sunnah. However a person is still excused, in a way, if indeed compelled.

    However, the author acknowledged (but did not agree with) the opinion that even with a rukhsah or excuse, it is better to refrain from knowingly committing any sin, even if threatened with death...

    Anything in parentheses is something I added to increase understanding or provide the author's intent. It is very difficult to understand with literal translations, and a student of knowledge once told me what he heard from his shuyuukh in nahw- 'if it wasn't for the skill needed to insert the correct words where they are intended, then a donkey could learn 'Arabic'. Please forgive any errors in translation, and point them out so that I may correct my understanding, Jazakum Allahu khayran...

    - : ǡ ǡ : : : { }.

    ǡ : . : .

    Sharh as-Siyar al-Kabeer by as-Sarakhsee

    The Chapter of the One Who is Compelled to Drink Wine and Eat Pig

    And he mentioned the narration of 'Ataa' about the man who was compelled (to consume) wine and the flesh of the pig, he said (about it): 'If he did not do it until he was killed, then he has obtained better, and if he eats and drinks, so he has an excuse'; and we do not take this (as our position), rather we say: 'It is not allowed for him that he leaves off eating and drinking upon fear of being killed', and it is a statement of Masruuq, so surely he said: 'Whoever is compelled, then he does not eat and does not drink, then he dies, he entered the Fire'; and 'Abu Yuusuf, may Allah have mercy on him, in a transmission from him, took the saying of 'Ataa', and he made that an analogy of being forced to commit Shirk with Allah, Exalted is He; rather we way: 'Surely the prohibited is dispelled near the harm; so surely Allah, Exalted is He, made an exclusion in the occurrence of harm, due to His saying, Exalted is He: {except if you are compelled to (do so)}[Al-'An'aam: 119].

    And the exclusion from the prohibited is (considered as) permission; and after the prohibition is dispelled, he accedes into this with eating and drinking; so when he refuses to eat it until he is killed, he has sinned, (which is) different (than in the case) of Disbelief; so surely the prohibition is not dispelled, and rather the lightening (of the command for Tawheed) for him is the part (where) speech of Disbelief is upon the tongue (only) with tranquility of the heart in Belief- so it is in the abstention (from uttering Disbelief) that is clinging to the resolve, and partly he is one who is authorized with a lightening (of the prohibition to commit Shirk); and the clinging with resolve is more rewarded, except that in the Book there is no unloosening the answer in his having sinned (in the case of Disbelief), and rather he said: 'I fear that he has sinned', because this one who is forced is not intended (to be the same as) one who was afflicted with starvation from every (possible) direction; so surely here it is not prevented for anyone from the slaves what is permissible (to eat pig or drink wine), from the excuse (given by the Book), and here is fear of destruction; indeed it occurred with the hindering of the slave, and when it is from the right of Allah, Exalted is He, there is no settling upon what (exists) in it of hindering the slave from what is not prohibited to the slave; then in the abstention (in the case of Disbelief) after compulsion, the Mushrikeen are exposed because of the firmness in the Deen (of the one who refused to recant Tawheed), and what is in it (of reward) of one who enrages the Mushrikeen, and that is not found in the (case of not eating pig or drinking wine in) the companion of starvation, so because of this the answer is proved correct here, with his saying: 'I fear that he has sinned' (in the case of the utterer of Disbelief), and Allah is the One Who Grants Success.

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    Here is a article in english regarding this topic, authored by brother Abu Sabaayaa

    And here is a link to a address on a simalar topic by Shaykh Salih al-Munajjid from Islam-QA.

    Hope that helps.

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