M. Rashid Hai's fundamentals of Hadith
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M. Rashid Hai's fundamentals of Hadith
Style and types of ahadith books
by M. Rashid Hai
During the early period of hadith compilations nothing specific regarding subject, order or arrangement was into consideration. However with the passage of time ahadith were compiled on different patterns and different styles. Depending upon these patterns and styles of arrangements, the ahadith books are classified into different categories.Style and Types of ahadith books
Some of the well known categories are as follows;PART – A (Well known categories.)
1 - Al-Sahih:
These are the books that contains ahadith, which on their personal judgment and criterion of the compilers, as ‘sahih’. However, there exist probabilities that some of the ahadith in such books may not have been judged ‘sahih’ by other compilers. Few of such books are;
i) Sahih al-Bukhari, ii) Sahih Muslim, iii) Sahih ibn Khuzaima, iv) Sahih ibn Habban, v) Kitab al ilzamat by Abul Hasan Ali ibn Umar Dar Qutni, and others.
2 - Al- Jama’e:
These are the books in which ahadith cover the following eight subjects viz., 1) Siyar, plural of Sirah – the complete biography of Prophet Muhammad sws, 2) Adab, plural of ‘adab’ – the etiquettes, 3) Tafsir – the exegesis of Qur’an, 4) Aqa’ed – the believes, 5) Fitn, plural of ‘fitna’ – sedition, discord, 6) Ishraat – the signs of day of judgment, 7) Ahkam, plural of ‘hukm’ – laws of ‘shareeah’, and 8) Manaqib, plural of Manqabt – the fine qualities of the Prophet sws, his ‘sahaaba’ (companions) and his tribe.
The following books of ahadith fall in this category; i) Jama’e al Bukhari, ii) Jama’e Muslim, iii) Jama’e al Tirmidhi, iv) Jama’e Sufyan ibn Saeed ibn Masrooq al Kufi, and others.
The books Jama’e al Bukhari and Jama’e Muslim are also termed as al Sahih.
3 - Al Sunnan:
In these books the ahadith are compiled subject wise, and the subject matters are arranged under the sections of law of books. These sections, initially were called ‘abwaab, then they were termed as ‘musannaf’ and at present these are called ‘sunnan’. Following are some famous ‘al sunnan’ books; i) Sunnan ibn Jareeh, by abul Waleed Abdul Malik ibn Abdul Aziz Rumi (d.151 H), ii) Sunnan Saeed ibn Mansoor (d. 227 H), iii) Sunnan abi Jafar, by Muhammad ibn al Sabah Dawalbi (d. 227 H), iv) Sunnan al Imam al Shafaii (d. 204 H), v) Sunnan al Daarmi (d. 255 H), vi) Sunnan al Tirmidhi (d. 279 H), vii) Sunnan ibn Majaa (d. 275 H),viii) Sunnan abi Dawood (d. 275 H), ix) Sunnan al Sughra by Ibn Shoib Nisaii (d. 303 H), x) Sunnan dar al Qatni (d. 385 H), xi) Sunnan Ani Bakr Ahmad ibn Suliman Najjar (d. 348 H), xii) Sunnan abi Qasim (d. 418 H), xiii) Sunnan al Kubra by Ibn al Hussain Bayhaqi (d. 458 H), xiv) Sunnan al Sughra by Ibn al Hussain Bayhaqi.
4 - Al Musnad:
These are the books in which ahadith are arranged according to the names of the ‘Sahaaba’. Meaning that all the ahadith narrated by a particular ‘Sahaabi’ are compiled at one place, no matter what subject any hadith deal with. The criterion of selection of ‘Sahaabi’ is either based upon seniority i.e. who embraced Islam first, or on alphabetical order. Some times Sunnan are compiled on the bases of cities or regions.
Some of the ‘masaneed’ based upon the names of ‘sahaaba’ are; i) Munad abi Dawood a; Tyalsee (d. 204 H), ii) Musnad abi Ishaq al Jawhari (d. 244 H), acollection of ahadith from Abu Bakr Siddiq ra , and others.
Some of the ‘masaneed’ referring to the three Imams are; i) Munad al Imam Abu Hanifa, ii) Musnad al Shaafii, iii) Musnad Ahmad.
5- Al Mawata:
Such book contains ahadith of Prophet sws , the narrations of ‘Sahaaba’, fatawa (rulings) of ‘Tabiin’ and sayings of the writer himself. Such books are; i) Mawatta al Imam Malik by Malik ibn Anas (d.179 H), ii) al Mawatta by Muhammad ibn Abdur Rahman bin Abi Za’ib (d. 158 H), iii) Mawatta Ubdaan by Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Musa Maruzi (d. 293 H)
6 – Al Musannaf:
Such book contains ahadith of Prophet sws , the narrations of ‘Sahaaba’, and fatawa (rulings) of ‘Tabiin’. It does not contain the sayings of the writer but includes a great number of narrations of ‘Sahaaba’. There is no much difference between Sunnan, Mawatta and Musannaf.
7- Al Mu’jam:
According to Shaikul Hadith Muhammad Zakaria, ‘mu’jam’ is that book of hadith in which the alphabetical order is maintained for the narrators no matter they are ‘sahaaba’ or the teachers of the compilers. It means ‘mu’jam’ is very close to ‘musnad’.
Some of the known ‘mu’ajam’ are; i) Al Mu’jam as Saghir by Imam Tabarani, in which he has selected one hadith each from his teachers. ii) Mu’jam al Sahaaba by Abu Muhammad Hussain ibn Masud Baghwi (d. 516 H), iii) Mu’jum al Sahaaba by ibn Qana’e (d. 351 H) and others.
8 - Al Mustadrak:
It is that book in which those ahadith are compiled which were gathered by others but they could not include these in their books, although these ahadith were at par with the criterion set by them. Mustadarakat have been written for ‘Sahihain’ (Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim); these include; i) Kitab al ilzamat by Ali ibn Umar ibn Ahmad Dar Qatni ( d. 385 H), In this book Dar Qatni compiled those ahadith which fulfilled the criterion set by Imam Bukhari and Muslim but were included in their ‘Sahihain’.This book is also based upon the principle of ‘Musnad’. ii) al Mustadrak ela as Sahihain by Hafiz abu Zar Harvi (d. 434 H), iii) al Mustadrak as Sahihain by Abu Abdullah al Hakim Nishapuri (d. 405 H).
9 - Al Mustakhraj:
In such books those ahadith have been compiled which are taken by other books without mentioning the names of those compilers. Following are some examples;
Mustakharajat on Sahih Bukhari: i) Al Mustakhraj by Abi Bakr Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Ismaili (d. 371 H), ii) Mustakhraj al Ghatrifi by Hafiz abu Ahmad ibn Abu Hamid Ghatrifi 9d. 377 H).
Mustakharajat on Sahih Muslim: i) Mustakhraj Abi Muhammad at Tusu (d. 339 H), ii) Mustakhraj Abi Saeed Nishapuri (d. 353 H).
Mustakharajat on Sahihain: i) Mustakhraj Abi Naeem by Abu Naeem Ahmad ibn Abdullah (d. 430 H), ii) Mustakhraj Abi Bakr al Burqani (d. 425 H)
10 – Al Juzz:
In these books ahadith on a particular subject are compiled. These books include; i) Juzz al Qira’at Khalf al Imam by Imam Bukhari, ii) Juzz Hajjah al Widaa by Shaikh Muhammad Zakaria (d. 1403 H)
11 – Al Arba’in:
In such books 40 ahadith are compiled either on one subject or different. In fact the objective to write such books was to follow a hadith related by Imam Bayhaqi, in which Abul Dard’a narrated that while answering to a question; how much ‘ilm’ (knowledge) is acquired to become a ‘faqih’ ( jurisprudent),the Prophet Muhammad sws said, that whoever amongst my ‘ummah’ remembers 40 of my ahadith that relates to ‘deen’ (religion), he will be raised on the day of resurrection as a ‘faqih’, and I sws will be his witness and ‘shaafe’ (recommender). (Mishkaat, Kitab al Ilm, 240/10)
The first ‘Arbai’n’ was written by Abdullah ibn Mubarek. Imam Dar Qatni, Imam Hakim, Abu Naeem, Abu Abdur Rahman Salma, Abu Bakr Bayhaqi and Imam Nawwai also compiled ‘Arbai’n’.
12 – Al Mawdu:
These are books in which fabricated or concocted narrations are compiled. Such books include; i) Al Mawduaat al Kubra by Ibn Jawzi, ii) Al Minar al Munif fi al Sahih wa al Da’if by Ibn Qayyam, iii) Al Mawduaat al Kubra by Mulla Ali Qari, iv) Silsila al Ahadith al Da’ifa by Allama Nasiruddin Albaani.
PART – B ( Other categories)
13 – Al Ahkaam:
These books contains ahadith selected from the most reliable books and are related to ‘ahkam’ (laws of ‘shareeah’ and ‘fiqh’. ‘Balugh al Maraam min Adl al Ahkaam’ by Hafiz ibn Hajr is a good example of it. Such books also fall in the category of ‘Sunnan’.
14 – Al Mashikha:
In such books ahadith related to one particular Shaikh are compiled, for example Mashikha al Hafiz Abi Yaala al Khalilee (d. 446 H)
15 – Al Mujjared:
Such books contains those ahadith from one of the reliable books but repetition of ‘isnad’ and ‘matan’ are omitted and is only referred to narrating ‘sahaabi’. For example ‘Tajreed al Sahihain’ by Imam Qartabi.
16 – Al Takhreej:
In these books such ahadith which were without ‘isnad’ in other books, are compiled with relevant ‘isnad’. For example ‘ Talkhis al Hubair fi Takhrij Ahadith al Rafa’e al Kabeer by Hafiz ibn Hajar.
17 – Al Jama’a:
Such books contains those ahadith from different reliable books but repetition of ‘isnad’ is omitted, like ‘Al Jama’a bain al Sahihan by Imam Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abu Nasr Hameedi (d. 488 H), Jama’a al Jawama’e by Allama Jajaluddin Sauti (d. 911 H)
18- Al Fahris:
Such books have compilations of the ‘fahris’ (list) of all the ahadith books, so that any hadth may be located easily. For example ‘Miftah Sahih al Bukhari and Miftah Sahih Muslim both by Muhammad ibn Mustafa Tauqadi.
19 – Al Itraaf:
In these books hadith are collected by their first or last lwords, so that a particular hadith may be recognized. Such books are very helpful to relocate a semi-forgettable hadith. Itraaf al Sahihain by Abu Masud Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Damishiqi (d. 401 H)
20 – Al Mushtehara:
In these books such ahadith are collected which are ‘mashoor’ (well circulated) but their ‘isnad’ is generally not known. For example; i) Al Durr al Muntashra fi al Ahadith al Mushtehara by Allama Jalaluddin Sauti, ii) Al La’a li al Manshura fi al Ahadith al Mashhura by Hafiz ibn Hajar.
21 – Asbaab al Hadith:
Ahadith, along with details that how, when and under what circumstances these were narrated by Prophet sws, are compiled in such books. For example al Lama’a fi Asbaab al Hadith by Hafiz Jalaluddin Sauti.
22 – Al Zawwaid:
In these books all those ahadith, which are collected from all other books but are not in ‘Sahihain’ ( Sahih al Bukhar, Sahih Muslim). For example Majma’e al Zawwaid wa Munba’e al Fawaid by Allama Nooruddin Haithmi (d. 807 H)
23 – Al Illal:
In such books those ahadith are compiled which have question marks on ‘isnad’ and incoherence in their ‘matan’. Kitab al Illal by Imam Bukari, Kitab al Illal al Kabeer by Imam Tirmidhi are good examples.
24 – Sharh al Hadith:
These are the books which are commentaries on hadith books. For example Fath al Bari by Hafiz ibn Hajar is a commentary on Sahih al Bukhari.
25 – Al Azkaar:
In such books all those ahadith relating to supplications are compiled. For example Kitab al Azkaar by Imam Nawwi, Al Hasan al Husain by Allama al Jazri or al Kalam al Tayyab by Imam Taimyyah.
26 – Al Musalsalat:
In these books those ahadith are collected in which all the narrators have a common characteristic, e.g. all the narrators are ‘faqih’ or ‘muhaddith’ or they use to perform same actions while narrating ahadith. For example; Al Azb al Silsal fi al Hadith al Musalsal by Hafiz Shamsuddin Dhahabi (d. 748 H), Al fazal al Mubin fi al Misalsal min Hadith al Nabi al Ameen by Shah Waliullah Dehalvi (d. 1176 H)
27 – Al Targheeb wa Al Tarheeb:
These books include those ahadith that relate to alluring and persuasion towards ‘deen’. Al Targheeb wa al Tarheeb by zakiuddin Abdul Azeem ibn Munzaree (d. 656 H) is one of the examples of such books.
28 – Ghareeb al Hadith:
These are books in which all the words in a hadith are explained by providing their literal and tradional meanings. For example; Ghareeb al Hadith by Abul Farj ibn Jawzi (d. 597 H).
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Fundamentals of hadithFundamentals of hadithIt is an agreed upon fact that Qur’an and Sunnah are the integral part of Islamic shariah, and the entire reliable and irrefutable sunnah is preserved in authentic ahadith. A hadith is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad (chain of reporters).M. Rashid Hai
A highly reliable and trustworthy chain of narrators (isnad) is pre-requisite for the text (matan) to be acceptable. Imam al-Bukhari remained extremely cautious while describing a hadith.
Classification of ahadith.
Muhaddatheen have classified the ahadith into different categories based upon the criterion set by them. These classifications are as follows:
1 - Classification of hadith on the basis of reliability and memory of the reporters:
These are classified into for categories:
(i) Sahih (sound) (ii) Hasan (good) (iii) Da’if (weak) (iv)Maudu (fabricated)
A sahih hadith has to have following five characteristics:
(i) Its chain of transmitters is continuous and there is no missing person in the chain of narrators.
(ii) The narrators are God-fearing, trustworthy in their religion with righteous conduct (adl).
(iii) The narrators are of very accurate and strong memory (dabt).
(iv) It is not an isolated (shadh) hadith.
(v) It has no hidden defect (mudallis)
Grading for a hadith to be sahih:
- those which are transmitted by both al- Bukhari and Muslim;
- those which are transmitted by al-Bukhari only;
- those which are transmitted by Muslim only;
those which are not found in the above two collections, but
- which agree with the requirements of both al-Bukhari and Muslim;
- which agree with the requirements of al- Bukhari only;
- which agree with the requirements of Muslim only; and
- those declared sahih by other traditionists.*
[*al-Tibi, al-Husain b. 'Abdullah, al-Khulasah fi Usul al-Hadith (ed. Subhi al-Samarra'i, Baghdad, 1391), p. 36.]
It is that hadith which does not contain a reporter accused of lying, it is not shadh and the hadith has been reported through more than one sanad. As defined by Imam Tirmizi.
The Hasan hadith is that which has following charateristics:
(i) Its chain of transmitters is continuous and there is no missing person in the chain of narrators.
(ii) The narrators are God-fearing, trustworthy in their religion with righteous conduct (adl).
(iii) The narrators are comparatively less accurate but have a good memory (dabt).
(iv) It is not an isolated (shadh) hadith.
(v) It has no hidden defect (mudallis)
Both categories, the Sahih and Hasan are used as a proof and are to be acted upon*.
[*Sheikh Ibn Uthaimin. Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 7, pg. 162]
Example of Hasan hadith.
Imam Ahmad reported that Yahya Ibn Saeed told him saying that Bahz Ibn Hakim said that his father informed him on the authority of his grand father: I said to the Prophet: Messanger of Allah, whom should I be (specially) good ? The Prophet said,” to your mother”. This he repeated thrice. Then he said, “to your father, then to him who is near of kin, one after the other”.
This hadith qualifies all the characteristics of a sahih hadith except that one of the hadith compilers has pointed out slight weakness in the dabt (memory0 of Bahz Ibn Hakim. However his father Hakim has been declared trustworthy by critics like Ibn Hibban and Imam Nasai.
A daif (weak) hadith is that in which;
(i) There is a discontinuity in the chain of narrators (isnad).
(ii) One of the reporter has a disparaged character and does not posses the ability of retaining the
(iii) There is ambiguity in the isnad or in the matan of hadith
(iv) The hadith is shaaz or mu'alall.
The daif hadith is further classified into different categories depending upon the defects in the qualification of isnad, these are;
i)Mursal ii) Mu’allaq iii) Mudallas iv) Munqati’ and v) Mu’dal
These will be defined at another suitable place.
The lesser the number and importance of defects, lesser the hadith is weak. More the number and severity of defects, more the hadith is maudu (fabricated)
Imam Al-Dahabi defines a maudu’ hadith is that in which;
(i) The matan (text) is against the established norms of Prophet’s sws sayings, and
(ii) Its one or more reporters are liars.
Al-Nawqwi in his ‘Taqrib’ writes that Maudu' ahadith are also recognised by external evidence related to a discrepancy found in the dates or times of a particular incident. For example, Ibn al-Qayyim, in ‘al-Manar al-Munif fi 'l- Sahih wa 'l-Da'if’ mentioned that when the second caliph, 'Umar b. al- Khattab decided to expel the Jews from Khaibar, some Jewish dignitaries brought a document to 'Umar apparently proving that the Prophet sws had intended that they stay there by exempting them from the jizyah (tax on non-Muslims under the rule of Muslims); the document carried the witness of two Companions, Sa'd b. Mu'adh and Mu'awiyah b. Abi Sufyan. 'Umar rejected the document outright, knowing that it was fabricated because the conquest of Khaibar took place in 6 AH, whereas Sa'd b. Mu'adh died in 3 AH just after the Battle of the Trench, and Mu'awiyah embraced Islam in 8 AH, after the conquest of Makkah!
A few examples of maudu’ (fabricated) ahadith:
- Allah says,"I was a hidden treasure, and I wished to be known, so I created a creation (mankind), then made Myself known to them, and they recognised Me."
- "He who knows himself, knows his Lord."
- "Love of one's homeland is part of Faith."
- "Seek knowledge, even if you have to go to China."
- "The ink of the scholar is holier than the blood of the martyr."
2 - Classification of hadith on the basis of the reference to a particular authority:
Such hadith can be classified into four categories; i) Qudsi ii) Marfu’ iii) Mauquf iv) Maqtu’
Hadith Qudsi is that in which the words used are that of Prophetsws but the meanings are from Allah swt. The hadith Qudsi is brought down to Prophet sws through revelations and during sleep.
Example hadith Qudsi
i) Narrated / AuthorityOf: Abu Huraira
who said that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "When Allah decreed the Creation He pledged Himself by writing in His book which is laid down with Him: 'My mercy prevails over my wrath.'" It was related by Muslim (also by al-Bukhari, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah).
ii) Narrated / Authority of : Abdullah ibn Abbas
Who said that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), said Allah said:: "He has written down the good deeds and the bad ones. Then He explained it [by saying that] he who has intended a good deed and has not done it, Allah writes it down with Himself as a full good deed, but if he has intended it and has done it, Allah writes it down with Himself as from ten good deeds to seven hundred times, or many times over. But if he has intended a bad deed and has not done it, Allah writes it down with Himself as a full good deed, but if he has intended it and has done it, Allah writes it down as one bad deed."
iii) Narrated / Authority Of: Abu Huraira
who said that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "Allah said: 'Sons of Adam inveigh against [the misfortunes of] Time, and I am Time, in My hand is the night and the day.' " It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim).
Difference between the Qura’n and Hadith Qudsi (Both being words of Allah):
- Qura’n is a miracle whereas hadith Qudsi is not.
- Quran has been revealed upon the Prophet sws through a medium – the Gabriel, whereas Hadit Qudsi is revealed directly upon the Prophet sws, without medium.
- In Qura’n both the words and their meanings are from Allah swt whereas in hadith Qudsi the words used may be from the Prophet sws or Allah swt, whereas the meaning are always from Allah swt.
- The munkir (detestable ) of Qura’n is a kafir, but a munkir of hadith Qudsi is not kafir but a condemned one.
- It is desirable to have ablution before reading Qura’n whereas this is not the case with hadith Qudsi.
A marfu (elevated) hadith is that which is transmitted through a chain of narrators that ultimately reaches to the Prophet sws.
Example of marfu hadith.
Imam Bukhari reported from Al-Humaidi Abdullah Ibn Zubair who reported from Sufyan who reported from Yahya b. Sa'id al-Ansari who reported from Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Taymi who reported from 'Alqamah b. Waqqas al-Laithi, who said: I heard 'Umar b. al- Khattab saying, while on the pulpit, "I heard Allah's Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) saying: The reward of deeds depends on the intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended; so whoever emigrated for wordly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he migrated."
A mauquf (stopped) hadith is that which stops at one of the sahaba (companions) and is not traced back to the Prophet sws.
Example of mauquf hadith.
Abu Bakr, Ibn Abbas and Ibn Zubair narrated, “"The grandfather is (treated like) a father."( Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-fara’id)
It should be noted that certain expressions used by a Companion generally render a hadith to be considered as being effectively marfu' although it is mauquf on the face of it, e.g. the following:
"We were commanded to ..."
"We were forbidden from ..."
"We used to do ..."
"We used to say/do ... while the Messenger of Allah was amongst us."
"We did not use to mind such-and-such..."
"It used to be said ..."
"It is from the Sunnah to ..."
"It was revealed in the following circumstances: ...", speaking about a verse of the Qur'an.
A maqtu (severed) hadith is that in which is narrated by a successor.
Example of maqtu hadith.
Muslim reports in the Introduction to his Sahih that Ibn Sirin (d. 110) said, "This knowledge (i.e. Hadith) is the Religion, so be careful from whom you take your religion."
Imam Malik's Al-Muwatta', one of the early collections of hadith, contains a relatively even ratio of these types of hadith, as well as mursal ahadith (which are discussed later). According to Abu Bakr al-Abhari (d. 375), Al- Muwatta' contains 600 marfu' ahadith, 613 mauquf ahadith, 285 maqtu' ahadith, and 228 mursal ahadith; a total of 1726 ahadith.
3 - The classification of hadith on the basis of the links in the isnad.
Such hadith may be classified as; i) Musnad ii) Muttasil iii) Mursal iv) Munqati
v) Mu’adal vi) Mu’allaq
Al-Hakim in his book ‘ Ma’rifah Ulum al-hadith’ defines a musnad ("supported") hadith as follows: "A hadith which a traditionalist reports from his shaikh (teacher) from whom he is known to have heard (ahadith) at a time of life suitable for learning, and similarly in turn for each shaikh, until the isnad reaches a well- known assahabi (Companion), who in turn reports from the Prophet sws”.
The term musnad is also applied to those collections of ahadith which give the ahadith of each assahabi (companion) separately. Among the early compilers of such a Musnad were Yahya b. 'Abd al- Hamid al-Himmani (d. 228) at Kufah and Musaddad b. Musarhad (d. 228) at Basrah. The largest existing collection of ahadith of Companions arranged in this manner is that of Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal (d. 241), which contains around 30,000 ahadith. Another larger work is attributed to the famous Andalusian traditionalist Baqi b. Makhlad al-Qurtubi (d. 276), but unfortunately it is now untraceable.
A muttasil hadith is that which has an uninterrupted isnad and goes back only to a companion or successor.
A mursal hadith is that in which the link between the successor and the Prophet(P) is missing, e.g., when a successor says "The Prophet said...".
A munqat’i hadith is that in which link anywhere before the successor (i.e., closer to the traditionalist recording the hadith) is missing.
A mu’adal hadith in which reporter omits two or more consecutive reporters in the isnad.
A mu’allaq hadith is that in which reporter omits the whole isnad and quotes the Prophet sws directly (i.e., the link is missing at the beginning).
4 - The classification of hadith on the basis of reporters involved in each stage of the isnad.
There are two types of such viz; hadith; i) mutawatir and ii) ahad. The ahad hadith is further classified into three groups; a) gharib b) aziz and iii) mushoor.
A mutawatir hadith is that which is reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together.
Al-Ghazali (d. 505) stipulates that a mutawatir narration be known by the sizeable number of its reporters equally in the beginning, in the middle and at the end.
Examples of mutawatir practices are the five daily prayers, fasting, zakat, the Hajj and recitation of the Qur'an. Among the verbal mutawatir ahadith, the following has been reported by at least sixty-two Companions from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), and has been widely-known amongst the Muslims throughout the ages: "Whoever invents a lie and attributes it to me intentionally, let him prepare his seat in the Fire."
Ahadith related to the description of the Haud Kauthar (the Basin of Abundant Goodness) in the Hereafter, raising the hands at certain postures during prayer, rubbing wet hands on the leather socks during ablution, revelation of the Qur'an in seven modes, and the prohibition of every intoxicant are further examples of verbal mutawatir ahadith.
A an ahad hadith or khabar wahid is one which is narrated by people whose number does not reach that of the mutawatir case. Ahad is further classified into: gharib, aziz and mushhur.
Gharib (scarce, strange)
A gharib hadith is that in which a single reporter is found relating it at some stage of the isnad.
Example of gharib hadith.
The saying of the Prophet sws, "Travel is a piece of punishment" is gharib; the isnad of this hadith contains only one reporter in each stage: Malik --- Yahya b. Abi Salih --- Abu Hurairah --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). With regard to its isnad, this hadith is sahih, although most gharib ahadith are weak; Ahmad b. Hanbal said, "Do not write these gharib ahadith because they are unacceptable, and most of them are weak."
Aziz (rare, strong)
It is that hadith in which at any stage in the isnad, only two reporters are found to narrate the hadith.
For example, Anas ra reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, "None of you (truly) believes until I become more beloved to him than his father, his son, and all the people."
Two reporters, Qatadah and 'Abdul 'Aziz b. Shu'aib, report this hadith from Anas, and two more reporters narrate from each of them: Shu'bah and Sa'id report from Qatada, and Isma'il b. Ulayyah and 'Abd al-Warith from 'Abd al-'Aziz; then a group of people report from each of them.
A mashhur hadith is that which is reported by more than two reporters. According to some scholars, every narrative which comes to be known widely, whether or not it has an authentic origin, is called mashhur.
According to al-'Ala'i (Abu Sa'id Khalil Salah al-Din, d. 761), a hadith may be known as aziz and mashhur at the same time. By this he means a hadith which is left with only two reporters in its isnad at any stage while it enjoys a host of reporters in other stages, such as the saying of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), "We are the last but (will be) the foremost on the Day of Resurrection." This hadith is aziz in its first stage, as it is reported by Hudhaifah b. al-Yaman and Abu Hurairah only. It later becomes mashhur as seven people report it from Abu Hurairah.
5 - The classification of hadith on the basis of the manner in which the hadith is reported.
Such hadith may be classified into i) Mudallas and ii) Musalsal
The mudallas hadith is that in which a reporter conceals (tadlis) the identity of his shaikh (teacher) in such a manner that the concealment is not apparent.
Tadlis means to hide some defects. Tadlis is the word derived from ‘da-la-sa’ meaning ‘zulmat’ or darkness. In the science of hadith, ‘tadlis’ means the practice in which a reporter hides the identity of his shaikh.
Ibn al-Salah describes two types of tadlis:
- tadlis al-isnad. A person reports from such a reporter to whom he met, but there is no proof that he listened that hadith from that person.Or reports from such a contemporary person to whom he did not met but pretends that he heard the hadith from him in person. A mudallis (one who practises tadlis) here usually uses the mode ("on the authority of") or ("he said") to conceal the truth about the isnad.
- tadlis al-shuyukh. The reporter does mention his shaikh by name, but uses a less well-known name, by-name, nickname etc., in order to conceal his shaikh's identity.
Al-'Iraqi (d. 806), in his notes on Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, adds a third type of tadlis:
- tadlis al-taswiyyah. To explain it, let us assume an isnad which contains a trustworthy shaikh reporting from a weak authority, who in turn reports from another trustworthy shaikh. Now, the reporter of this isnad omits the intermediate weak authority, leaving it apparently consisting of reliable authorities. He plainly shows that he heard it from his shaikh but he uses the mode "on the authority of" to link his immediate shaikh with the next trustworthy one. To an average student, this isnad seems free of any doubt or discrepancy. This is known to have been practised by Baqiyyah b. al-Walid, Walid b. Muslim, al-A'mash and al- Thauri. It is said to be the worst among the three kinds of tadlis.
A musalsal hadith is that in which all the reporters use the same mode of transmission such as 'an, haddathana (he said to us), etc., repeat any other additional statement or remark, or act in a particular manner while narrating the hadith. Knowledge of musalsal helps in discounting the possibility of tadlis.
6 - The classification of hadith on the basis of the nature of the text and isnad
Such hadith may be classified as; i) Shadhdh ii) Munkar and iii) Mudraj
A shadhdh hadith is that which is reported by a trustworthy person but goes against the narration of a person more reliable and trustworthy than him.
Shadhdh hadith is of two types.
Shadhdh al- Sanad: It is that hadith in which there is rarity (shudhdh) in the sanad.
Shadhdh al-Matan: It is that hadith in which there is rarity (shudhdh) in the matan (text).
A munkar hadith is that in which a narration goes against another authentic hadith reported by a weak narrator as defined by Ibn Hajar.
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal says, any hadith reported by a weak narrator is munkar.
Ibn Kathir quotes the following two ahadith in his Tafsir, the first of which is acceptable, whereas the second contradicts it and is unreliable:
- Ahmad === Abu Mu'awiyah === Hisham b. 'Urwah --- Fatimah bint al-Mundhir --- Asma' bint Abi Bakr, who said, "My mother came (to Madinah) during the treaty Quraish had made, while she was still a polytheist. So I came to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said to him, 'O Messenger of Allah, my mother has come willingly: should I treat her with kindness?' He replied, 'Yes! Treat her with kindness'."
- Al-Bazzar === 'Abdullah b. Shabib === Abu Bakr b. Abi Shaibah === Abu Qatadah al- 'Adawi --- the nephew of al-Zuhri --- al- Zuhri --- 'Urwah --- 'A'ishah and Asma', both of whom said, "Our mother came to us in Madinah while she was a polytheist, during the peace treaty between the Quraish and the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). So we said, 'O Messenger of Allah, our mother has come to Madinah willingly: do we treat her kindly?' He said, 'Yes! Treat her kindly'."
Ibn Kathir then remarks:
"This (latter) hadith, to our knowledge is reported only through this route of al- Zuhri --- 'Urwah --- 'A'ishah. It is a munkar hadith with this text because the mother of 'A'ishah is Umm Ruman, who was already a Muslim emigrant, while the mother of Asma' was another woman, as mentioned by name in other ahadith."
In contrast to a munkar hadith, if a reliable reporter is found to add something which is not narrated by other authentic sources, the addition is accepted as long as it does not contradict them; and is known as ziyadatu thiqah (an addition by one trustworthy).
Example of munkar.
An example is the hadith of al-Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud: "I asked the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), 'Which action is the most virtuous?' He said, 'The Prayer at its due time'." Two reporters, Al-Hasan b. Makdam and Bindar, reported it with the addition, "... at the beginning of its time"; both Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban declared this addition to be sahih.
A mudraj hadith is that in which there is an addition in the matan(text) or in isnad which was not present initially. Mudraj is the word derived from ‘idraj’ meaning interpolation.
Mudraj hadith is further classified into i) Mundraj al-matan – in which the addition is in text, and ii) Mundraj al-isnad – in which addition is in isnad .
Example of mundraj.
Al-Khatib relates via Abu Qattan and Shababah who heard from--- Shu'bah --- Muhammad b. Ziyad who heard from --- Abu Hurairah who heard from --- The Prophet sws who said,
"Perform the ablution fully; woe to the heels from the Fire!"
Al-Khatib then remarks,
"The statement, 'Perform the ablution fully' is made by Abu Hurairah, while the statement afterwards, 'Woe to the heels from the Fire!', is that of the Prophet sws. The distinction between the two is understood from the narration of al- Bukhari, who transmits the same hadith and quotes Abu Hurairah as saying, "Complete the ablution, for Abu 'l-Qasim sws who said: Woe to the heels from the Fire!"."
Such an addition may be found in the beginning, in the middle, or at the end, A reporter found to be in the habit of intentional idraj is generally unacceptable and considered a liar. However, the traditionists are more lenient towards those reporters who may do so forgetfully or in order to explain a difficult word.
7 - The classification on the basis of hidden defect found in the text or isnad of a hadith.
Such hadith is categirised into; i) Maqlub ii) Mudtarib and Ma’lul or Ma’uallal
Maqlub (changed, reversed)
A maqlub hadith is that in which the name of a reporter is replaced by another one in isnad or the order of the text is reversed. Maqlub hadith is further classified into; i) Maqlub al-Sanad and ii) Maqlub al-Matan.
In such hadith in which the name of a reporter is replaced by another one.
For example, quoting Abu Hurairah as the reporter from the Prophet sws although the actual reporter was someone else, or by reversal of the name of the reporter, e.g. mentioning Walid b. Muslim instead of Muslim b. Walid, or Ka'b b. Murrah instead of Murrah b. Ka'b.
The famous trial of al-Bukhari by the scholars of Baghdad provides a good example of a maqlub isnad. The traditionists, in order to test their visitor, al-Bukhari, appointed ten men, each with ten ahadith. Now, each hadith (text) of these ten people was prefixed with the isnad of another. Imam al-Bukhari listened to each of the ten men as they narrated their ahadith and denied the correctness of every hadith. When they had finished narrating these ahadith, he addressed each person in turn and recounted to him each of his ahadith with its correct isnad. This trial earned him great honour among the scholars of Baghdad.
Maqlub al Matan.
In this hadith the order of the sentences of a narration is changed or reversed.
For example, in his transmission of the famous hadith describing the seven who will be under the shelter of Allah on the Day of Judgment, Muslim reports one of the categories as, "a man who conceals his act of charity to such an extent that his right hand does not know what his left hand gives in charity." This sentence has clearly been reversed by a reporter, because the correct wording is recorded in other narrations of both al-Bukhari and Muslim as follows: "... that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives ..."
A mudtarib hadith as described by Ibn Kathir is that in which, if reporters disagree about a particular shaikh, or about some other points in the isnad or the text, in such a way that none of the opinions can be preferred over the others, and thus there is uncertainty about the isnad or text. Such hadith are further classified as; i) Mudtarib al-Sanad and ii) Mutarib al-Matan.
For example with regard to idtirab in the isnad, it is reported on the authority of Abu Bakr that he said, "O Messenger of Allah! I see you getting older?" He (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) replied, "What made me old are Surah Hud and its sister surahs." Al-Daraqutni says,
"This is an example of a mudtarib hadith. It is reported through Abu Ishaq, but as many as ten different opinions are held about this isnad: some report it as mursal, others as muttasil; some take it as musnad of Abu Bakr, others as musnad of Sa'd or 'A'ishah. Since all these reports are comparable in weight, it is difficult to prefer one above another. Hence, the hadith is termed as mudtarib, as reported by ibn Kathir in his book ‘Ikhtisar’.
As an example of idtirab in the text, Rafi' b. Khadij said that the Messenger of Allah sws forbade the renting of land. The reporters narrating from Rafi' give different statements, as follows:
- Hanzalah asked Rafi', "What about renting for gold and silver?" He replied, "It does not matter if it is rent for gold and silver."
- Rifa'ah --- Rafi' --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who said, "Whoever owns a piece of land should cultivate it, give it to his brother to cultivate, or abandon it."
- Salim --- Rafi' --- his two uncles --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who forbade the renting of farming land.
- The son of Rafi' --- Rafi' --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who forbade the renting of land.
- A different narration by Rafi' from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who said, "Whoever owns a piece of land should either cultivate it or give it to his brother to cultivate. He must not rent it for a third or a quarter of the produce, nor for a given quantity of the produce."
- Zaid b. Thabit said, "May Allah forgive Rafi'! I am more aware of the hadith than he; what happened was that two of the Ansar (Helpers) had a dispute, so they came to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who said after listening to their cases, 'If this is your position, then do not rent the farms.' Rafi' has only heard the last phrase, i.e., 'Do not rent the farms'."
Because of these various versions, Ahmad b. Hanbal said,
"The ahadith reported by Rafi' about the renting of land are mudtarib. They are not to be accepted, especially when they go against the well-established hadith of Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) gave the land of Khaibar to the Jews on condition that they work on it and take half of the produce."
Ma'lul or Mu'allal (defective)
A ma'lul (defective) hadith is one which appears to be sound, but thorough research reveals a disparaging factor, as described by Ibn al-Salah. Such factors can be:
- declaring a hadith musnad when it is in fact mursal, or marfu' when it is in fact mauquf;
- showing a reporter to narrate from his shaikh when in fact he did not meet the latter; or attributing a hadith to one Companion when it in fact comes through another.
Ibn al-Madini (d. 324) says that such a defect can only be revealed if all the isnads of a particular hadith are collated. In his book al- 'Ilal, he gives thirty-four Successors and the names of those Companions from whom each of them heard ahadith directly. For example, he says that al-Hasan al-Basri (d. 110, aged 88) did not see 'Ali (d. 40), although he adds that there is a slight possibility that he may have seen him during his childhood in Madinah. Such information is very important, since for example, many Sufi traditions go back to al- Hasan al-Basri, who is claimed to report directly from 'Ali.
Being a very delicate branch of Mustalah al- Hadith, only a few well-known traditionists such as Ibn al-Madini (d. 234), Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi (d. 327), al-Khallal (d. 311) and al-Daraqutni (d. 385), have compiled books about it. Ibn Abi Hatim, in his Kitab al-'Ilal, has given 2840 examples of ma'lul ahadith about a range of topics.
An example of a ma'lul hadith is one transmitted by Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurairah, who reports the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) as saying,
"Allah created the land on Saturday; He created the mountains on Sunday; He created the trees on Monday; He created the things entailing labour on Tuesday; He created the light (or fish) on Wednesday; He scattered the beasts in it (the earth) on Thursday; and He created Adam after the afternoon of Friday, the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday, between the afternoon and night."
Regarding it, Ibn Taimiyyah says,
"Men more knowledgeable than Muslim, such as al-Bukhari and Yahya b. Ma'in, have criticised it. Al-Bukhari said, 'This saying is not that of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), but one of Ka'b al-Ahbar'."
- 23rd June 2011 #3
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- Jul 2010
Qur'an, Hadith and Sunnah
Qur’an, Hadith and Sunnah
M. Rashid Hai
Qur’an is the words of Allah - Allah, `azza wa jall- and unchallengeable base of Islamic shariah. It provides the basic principles; how to worship Allah, what good deeds are to be done to please Allah and what are to be avoided to get rid of hell fire. But it is a hard fact that one can’t understand and catch the real essence of Qur’an without any support or guidance.
Now the question is what sort of support or guidance is required to understand holy Qur’an. The answer is provided in Qur’an itself in which Allah says:
Just as We have sent among you a messenger from yourselves reciting to you Our verses and purifying you and teaching you’ The Book’ and The Hikmah (Wisdom) and teaching you that which you did not know. (2:151)
In this verse ‘The Book’ refers to the Qur’an. The question is what ‘The Hikmah’ (Wisdom) refers to in this verse.
The Hikmah (Wisdom):
All the Mufassir Qur’an (exegists) and the translators are of the firm opinion that in this verse and verses like this, for example 3:164, 4:113, 62:2, ‘The Hikmah’ refers to hadith and sunnah.
Hadith, its literal meanings:
The literal meanings of ‘hadith’ in Arabic dictionary are; (as noun) speech, talk, conversation, report or communication and (as adjective) new, novel, modern or recent.
Hadith, its traditional meanings:
Traditionally ‘hadith’ means the all the sayings, deeds of the Prophet saw
and the silent approval of the deeds of his ‘sahabah’ ra (companions), meaning that Prophet did not object or disapprove to the deeds of his companions ra.
The literal meanings of sunnah are; law, tradition or practice. But traditionally and generally it implies to the practices and deeds of the Prophet saw
Difference between hadith and sunnah:
Generally the words hadith and sunnah are used synonymously.This is not a correct impression. The words Hadith and Sunnah have entirely different connotations, and each one holds a different status in the Shari`ah. If we assign the same meaning to both the terms, it would create a lot of complications. For a proper understanding of the science of Hadith, therefore, it is necessary to know precisely the difference between Hadith and Sunnah.
The Hadith (pl. ahadith):
1 - “The term Hadith (literally: ‘a saying’ or ‘something new’) is defined as the individual-to-individual narratives ascribed to the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) regarding his sayings, actions, expressed or silent approvals and his personal description.
2 - Hadith is not an independent source of the Shariah as it does not add to the content of the Qur’an and Sunnah but merely “explains” these two, and is totally dependent on them for its survival.
3 - The ahadith help a great deal to understand the directives of the Qur’an.
4 - They are the only source through which we may approach the biography and lifestyle of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
5 - They inform us of the ‘uswa-e-hasana’ of the Prophet (peace be upon him). For example, the way he performed ablution in an ideal manner out of the Qur’anic order for ablution (5:6).
6 - They reveal to us the Holy Prophet’s (peace be upon him) understanding and interpretation of the Qur’anic phrases.
7 - They enlighten the background in which the Qur’an was revealed. This background, which includes the geographical circumstances of the Quranic revelations, is extremely important to understand the true essence and meaning of the different Quranic directives.
8 - They inform us of the lives of the Prophet’s companions (peace be upon them all) who, undoubtedly, are the heroes of the Islamic history for committing their lives entirely to Allah’s Religion.
There may be many other reasons to embrace the science of hadith but, we believe, the above are already good enough to prove the point.
Allah swt has entitled the Qur’an as Furqan – something that distinguishes between wrong and right. Therefore, each hadith that was ascribed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) was checked in the light of the Qur’an. No hadith is accepted which contradicted either the Qur’an or Sunnah or established facts.
The fact that the Hadith does not add to the content of the religion, preserved within the Qur’an and sunnah, but only explains it makes it very safe to utilize the hadith as, on its basis, not even a single directive of the Qur’an or practice of the sunnah may be altered.
No matter how commonly hadith and sunnah may be used as synonyms, there is a significant distinction between these terms.
1 -Unlike the hadith, the term sunnah does not refer to each saying, action, approval or the personal description of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) but only his “religious” actions and strongly instituted among his followers as an essential part of their faith.
2 - The historical record of the facts like the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) spoke Arabic, wore an Arab dress, rode the camel, kept sword etc. would come under the term hadith whereas the way he demonstrated to his followers how to offer salah (prayer), perform Hajj (pilgrimage) and keep fasts during Ramadan would come under the term sunnah – salah, hajj and fasts being the religious acts.
3 - As there is a distinction between the hadith and sunnah, there is a distinction between the Qur’anic orders and sunnah as well.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) punished the thieves and adulterers and raised sword against the deniers of the truth but none of these are sunan as they are purely the Quranic orders that the Prophet (peace be upon him) carried out. Though the sunan like salah, fasting, hajj, zakah and sacrificing of animals are also mentioned in the Qur’an but it is clear from the Qur’an itself that all of these sunan originated from the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
4 - More so, sunan are related to the practical aspects of life, therefore, it does not include the basic beliefs (for example, that of oneness of Allah) mentioned in the Qur’an.
5 - Only the Qur’an and sunnah constitute the Shariah - the Islamic law. The hadith does not add to it but merely comes in to explain the Islamic Shariah stated within the Qur’an or demonstrated through the sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
For example, the Qur’an orders to cut off a thief’s hands (5:38); the hadith would explain the word sariq (male thief) and sariqah (female thief) used in the Qur’an and warn that these words do not apply to all the thieves but only those who fulfill certain conditions. According to the linguistic principles, the words sariq and sariqah are adjectives and denote the thoroughness in the characteristics of the verb they qualify.
6 - The sunnah enjoys an equal status to the Holy Qur’an in forming the Islamic Shariah because both emanate from the same source i.e. the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) who, by the order of the Almighty, conveyed each one with equal care and eagerness.
Beware; he did not convey the Book alone which leaves out many practical details but sunnah as well which shapes the practical life of a Muslim. For example, the Qur’an orders believers to offer salah but leaves out the details of how to do so. The sunnah, on the other hand, practically demonstrates of how to offer it with all its formalities. In this way, both the Qur’an and sunnah compliment each other to form a complete lifestyle.
7 - The sunan instituted by the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) include the manner in which five daily, Eid and funeral prayers are offered, the mode of fasting in Ramadan, all rituals of Hajj, the rate and ceilings of zakah, the nikah (solemnization of marriage), the circumcision of male children, saying prescribed words in the ears of the newborn, the tradition of burying the dead after bathing and wrapping in coffin cloth, beginning every deed with Allah’s name, greeting each other by saying Assalamo’alaikum (peace be to you) and replying with Wa’alaikumassalam (peace be to you too), saying Alhamdulillah (all gratitude be to Allah) upon sneezing, slaughtering animals in a specific manner with the proclamation of Allah-o-Akbar (God is Great), shortening of nails, cleaning of mouth, nose and teeth, abstaining from intercourse during menstruation and afterbirth, trimming the moustache, removing the undesired hair and washing after urination, defecation and intercourse.
None of these established sunan, as claimed by some, is contrary to the Holy Qur’an.
8. The sunan are as pure and authentic as the Qur’an itself because both, the Qur’an and sunnah, have reached us through the same mode of transmission, i.e. the consensus of each generation of the Ummah.
9. No practice, whether Religious or not, can be accepted as sunnah except for those that the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself explicitly introduced as his sunnah.
To sum up, there is a clear distinction between the hadith and sunnah which must be understood. Hadith is an important “explanatory source” for the Religious understanding, as it explains the Qur’an and Sunnah, but still not the “basic source” of the Religion. The basic sources, which form the Shariah, are only two:
(i) Qur’an (the Book) and (ii) Sunnah . A hadith may be questioned to be more or less authentic but the authenticity of the Sunnah cannot be questioned because it has come down to us through the same mode of transmission by which the Holy Qur’an has come to us, i.e. the consensus of each generation of the Ummah since the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
In the words of Amin Ahsan Islahi (a scholar from Pakistan), the relation between the Qur’an and Sunnah is that of soul and body. In other words, the soul or the spirit of the body of Qur’an is in the sunnah of the Prophet sws, a form of its display. Both go together to complete the splendid edifice of Islam. Take away one of them, and the whole structure falls apart.
- 4th July 2011 #4
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- Jul 2010
The Uloom (Sciences) required to understand ahadithThe Uloom (Sciences) required to understand ahadith
M. Rashid Hai
In this science the condition, births, deaths, teachers and students of narrators were gathered in detail and from these details judgments on the position of the narrators, as to whether they were truthful, trustworthy or unreliable, were made. This science is very interesting; details of over 500,000 narrators have been collated. In this science many books have been written. Some of them are:
- Tahdheeb al-Kaamil of Imaam Yoosuf Muzee (d.742H),
- Tadhkirratul-Huffaadh of ‘Allaamah Dhahabee (d.748H)
- Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb of Haafidh Ibn Hajr (d. 852 H),
- Al-isabah fee Tameez as-sahaabah of Ibn Hajr
- Aain al-isabah of Suyuti- a summarized version of above book
2. Ilm Masatalah al-Hadeeth (Usool of Hadeeth)
In the light of this knowledge the standards and rules of ahaadeeth, their authenticity and weakness were established. The famous books in this field are:
i) Uloom al-Hadeeth al-Ma’aroof Muqqadimah of Ibn as-Salaah by Abu Amar Uthmaan Ibn as-Salaah (d.557H).
ii) Tawjeeh an-Nadhar of ‘Allaamah Taahir Ibn Saalih al-Jazaa’iree (d.1338H)
iii) Qawaid at-Tahdeeth of ‘Allaamah Sayyid Jamaal-ud-Deen Qaasimee (d.1332H)
3. Ilm Ghareeb al-Hadeeth
In this knowledge the meaning of difficult words (in Arabic) have been investigated and researched.
i) al-Faaiq of Zamaksharee (d.538H).
ii) an-Nihayah of al-Ma’aroof Ibn Aatheer (d.606H)
4. Ilm Takhreej al-Hadeeth
From this knowledge we find where a particular hadeeth pertaining to a particular science can be found from the well known books of tafseer (Exegesis of the Qur’aan), belief and jurisprudence. For example:
i) al-Hidaayah of Burhaan-ud-Deen Alee Ibn Abee Bakr al-Margi’aanee (d.592H)
ii) Ihyaa Uloom ud Deen of Abu Haamid Gazzaalee (d.505H)
iii) Haafidh Zaila’ee’s (d.792H) book Nasb ur-Rayah
iv) Haafidh Ibn Hajr al-Asqalaanee’s (d.852H) book ad-Diraayah and
v) Haafidh Zayn-ud-Deen A’raaqi’s (d.806H) work al-Mugnee an Haml al-Asfaar.
5. Ilm al-Hadeeth al-Mawdoo’ah
In this science the people of knowledge have written books in which they separated the mawdoo (fabricated, forged) narration’s from the authentic ones. And from amongst the better known books are:
i) Qaadhi ash-Shawkaanee’s (d.1255H) book Fawaa’id al-Majmoo’ah.
ii) Jalaal-ud-Deen as-Suyootee’s (d.911H) book Ila Ala al-Masnoo’ah.
6. Ilm Naaskh wal-Mansookh
In this science one of the most famous works is that of Muhammad Ibn Moosaa Haazamee (d.784H at the age of 35) called Kitaab al-Ee’tibaar.
7. Ilm at-Tawfeeq Bayn al-Hadeeth
In this science the authentic (saheeh) ahaadeeth that seem to contradict each other have been explained and resolved.
i) Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d.204H) first talked about this subject in his Risaalah famously known as Mukhtalif al-Hadeeth.
ii) Imaam at-Tahawee’s (d.321H) work, Mushkil al-Aathaar.
8. Ilm Mukhtalif wal-Ma’atalaf
This science mentions the names of narrators, their kunyah’s, titles, parents, fathers or teachers, whose names may have shown similarities and due to this a person may have made a mistake:
Ibn Hajr’s (d.852H) book, Ta’beer al-Munabbah, is a great example of this.
9. Ilm Atraaf al-Hadeeth
This science helps to find a narration, the book of hadeeth it may be found in and its
narrators. For example the first part of the hadeeth:
“Actions are but by intentions…”
If you wanted to find all the words of a narration and its narrators then one would need to refer to this science and the detailed books authored in it.
Kitaab Tuhfaa al-Ashraaf of Haafidh Muzanee (d.742H). It has a list of all the ahaadeeth in the six books.
10. Fiqh al -Hadeeth
In this science all the authentic ahaadeeth related to rulings and commands were compiled. On this topic books that one may benefit from are:
i) A’laam al-Muwaqqi’een of Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d.751H)
ii) Hujjatullah al-Balighaa of Shah Waleeullaah Dehlawee (d.1176H)
iii) Abu Ubaid Qaasim Ibn Salaam’s book (d.224H) Kitaab al-Amwaal is famous.
iv) Qaadhi Abu Yoosuf’s (d.182H) book Kitaab al-Akhraj.
v) Kitaab al-Umm of Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d.204H), volume 7
vi) Ar-Risaalah of Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d.204H)
vii) Al-Muwaffiqaat of Imaam Abul Ishaaq ash-Shaatibee (d.790H), volume 4
viii) Sawaa’iq al-Mursalah of Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d.751H), volume 2 and
ix) Al-Ahkaam of Ibn Hazm al-Anduloosee (d.456H)
In the history of the knowledge of hadeeth these books have a status:
· Muqqadimmah Fathul-Baari of Ibn Hajr al-Asqalaanee (d.852H)
· Jaami Bayaan al-Ilm of Haafidh Ibn Abdul Barr al-Anduloosee (d.463H)
· Ma’arifah Uloom al-Hadeeth of Imaam Haakim (d.405H) and
· Muqqaddimah Tuhfatul Ahwadhee Sharh Sunan at-Tirmidhee of Abdur-Rahmaan Muhaddith Mubarakpuri (d.1935)
- 29th July 2011 #5
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- Jul 2010
The hadith compilers and the mohaddatheen
The Hadith Compilers and the MuhaddatheenThere is long list of muhaddatheen who collected and compiled ahadith and preserved them in written form and in books.M. Rashid Hai
Following are few sahaaba (companions) who jot down and compiled ahadith during the life time of the Prophet sws.PART – A
1. Abdullaah Ibn Amr al-Aas (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). ( d.42 H)
2. Ibn Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). (d. 63 H )
3. Abu Hurairah (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). (d. 57 H)
4. Alee Ibn Talib (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). ( d. 40 H)
5. Abu Shah Yamanee (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu)
6. Aa’ishah Siddeeqa (radi-Allaahu ‘anhaa) ( d. 58 H)
7. Abdullah Ibn Abbaas (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu) ( d. 68 H)
8. Sa’eed Ibn Jubair (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). (d. 95 H)
9. Anas Ibn Maalik (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu) ( d. 93 H)
10. Saeed ibn Musaib (d.94 H)
11. Amr Ibn Hazm (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu) ( d. 51 H)
12. Samrah Ibn Jundub (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu) (d. 60 H)
13. Sa’ad Ibn Ubaadah (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu) (died during the Khilafat of Abu Bakr)
14. Naaf’i (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu)
The seven sahaaba with most narrations of ahadeeth
They are [in order of number of narrations]:
i) Abu Hurayrah, the most of them in Hadeeth, he narrated 5374 Ahaadith.
ii) Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar, he narrated 2630 Ahaadith.
iii) Anas ibn Maalik, he narrated 2286 Ahaadith.
iv) Aa-isha, the mother of the believers, she narrated 2210 Ahaadith.
v) Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas, he narrated 1660 Ahaadith.
vi) Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah, he narrated 1540 Ahaadith.
v A Abu Sa’eed al Khudree [who is Sa’d ibn Maalik], who narrated 1170 Ahaadith.
Other hadith compilers:
Humaam Ibn Munabbeh (d.101H).
Muhammad Ibn Shihaab Al Zuhri ( Born in Makka, lived in Damuscus. d. 124 H)
Abdul Malik ibn Juraij (A Makki scholar d. 150 H)
Muhammad Ibn Yasir Ibn Khayyar ( A Makki scholar. d. 151 H)
Mu’ammar Ibn Rashid ( A Yemni scholar, d. 153 H)
Saeed Ibn Royyeah (A Madni scholar, d. 156 H)
Imam al Awza’ee ( A Syrian scholar, d. 157 H)
Rabee’a Ibn Sabeeh (d.160 H)
Sha’bah Ibn Hahhaj (d. 160 H)
Imam Sufyaan ath Thawree ( d. 161 H in Koofa)
Imam Hammad Ibn Salamah ( d. 167 H, in Basra)
Maalik Ibn Anas ( d. 179)
Abdullah Ibn al Mubaarek ( d. 181 H, in Khurassan)
Jareer Ibn Abdul Hameed (d. 188 H)
Suffyya Ibn Unainah (d. 198 H)
Abu Dawood Tayalsee ( d. 204)
Abdur Razzaq Ibn Hammam (d. 211 H)
Asad Ibn Musa ( d. 212 H)
Ubaidullah Ibn Musa ( d. 213 H)
Abdullah Ibn Zubair Hameedee ( d. 219 H)
Saeed Ibn Mansoor ( d. 227 H)
Yahya Ibn Abdul Hameed Hamani (d. 228 H)
Naeem Ibn Hammad ( d. 228 H)
Ishaq Ibn Rahuyya ( d. 228H)
Abu Bakr Ibn abi Shaibah ( d. 235 H)
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal ( d. 241 H)
Abd Ibn Hameed ( d. 249 H)
Ishaq Ibn Bahlul ( d. 252 H)
Abdullah Ibn Abdur Raman Du’armi ( d. 255 H)
Muhammad Ibn Ismail Bukhari ( d. 256 H)
Abu Masud Razi ( d. 258 H)
Muslim Ibn Hajjaj ( d. 261 H)
Muhammad Ibn Yazid Ibn Majah ( d. 273 H)
Abu Dawood Sajastanee ( d. 275 H)
Baqi Ibn Mukhlid Qartabi ( d. 276 H)
Muhammah Ibn Esa Tirmizi ( d. 279 H)
Ahmad Ibn Abi Asim ( d. 287 H)
Abu Bakr Bazzar ( d. 292 H)
Abu Muslam Kashee ( d. 292 H)
Muhammad Ibn Nasr Maruzee ( d. 294 H)
Ahmad Ibn Shoib Nisaee ( d. 303 H)
Abu Ya’lla Muslee ( d. 307 H)
Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Janadi(d.308 AH)
Ibn Khuzaima ( d. 311 H)
Abul Awana al Safrainee ( d. 316 H)
Ibn Jarud ( d. 317 H)
Ibn Habban ( d. 354 H)
Abul Qasim Tabranee ( d. 360 H)
Abul Hasan Daru Qatnee ( d. 385 H)
Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Khattab ( d. 388H)
Abu Abdullah Hakim ( d. 405 H)
Abu Na’eem Isphani ( d. 430 H)
Ahmad Ibn Husain Baiqahee ( d. 458 H)
Hafiz Ibn Abdur Barr Qartabi ( d. 463 H)
Abu Bakr Khateeb Baghdadi ( d. 463 H)
Abu Nasr Muhammad Ibn Fatuh Hamidee ( d. 488 H)
Hussain Ibn Masud Baghvee ( d. 519 H)
Abu Bkar Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn al-Arabi ( d. 543 H)
Qazi Ayyaz Maleki ( d. 544 H)
Mujaddid ad Deen Ibn Aseer Jazree ( d. 606 H)
Abus Salam Ibn Taimiyyah ( d. 652)
Zaki uddin Abdul Azeem Munzaree ( d. 656 H)
Yahya Ibn Sharf Nauwee ( d. 676 H)
Wali uddin Khateeb Tabrazee ( d. 737 H)
Hafiz Ibn Qayyam al Ja’uzee ( d. 751 H)
Jamal iddin Zaila’ee ( d. 762 H)
Hafiz Emad uddin Abu Fad’a Ibn Kathir ( d. 774 H)
Hafiz Ahmad Ibn Hajr Asqalanee ( d. 852 H)
Hafiz Suyuti (d. 902 H)
Hafiz Jalal uddin Sautti ( d. 911 H)
Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehalvi (d. 1052 H)
Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehalvi (d. 1176 H)
Muhammad Ibn Ali al Shaukani ( d. 1250 H)
Ehsaan Ilahi Zaheer (d. 1407 H)
Muhammad Nasiruddin Albani (d. 1420 )
PART – B
1-Imam Malik Ibn Anas (93 – 179 H)
Name Malik, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Abdullah, father’ name Anas, grand father’s name Malik, who was an elevated ‘tabi’ee’ (successor). His great grand father – Abu Amir a resident of Yemen, converted to Islam and migrated to Madina. The Maliki Madhab, named after Malik, is one of the four schools of jurisprudence that are followed by Sunni Muslims to this day.
Teachers of Imam Malik:
Imam Malik memorized the Qur’an from Imam Nafa’e Ibn Abdur Rahman. He also studied from Hisham Ibn Urwah, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Jafar al Sadiq.
Imam Malik used to learn from Imam Nafa’e for 12 long years for 12 long years and became his successor after Nafa’e death.
Students of Imam Malik:
It is said that the number of students of Imam Malik is countless as he taught for 62 long years in Madina. The most renowned students of Imam Malik are Imam Shafa’i and Imam Abu Yousuf.
Love for Madina:
Imam Malik had intense love and respect for Madina. Throughout his life he used to reside in the rented house of Abdullah Ibn Masud. He never moved out of Madina except in great need. He never rode over a horse in Madina, with the thought that it will be a disrespect of a place where the Prophet sws is buried.
Imam Malik’s fiqh (jurisprudence):
The fiqh of Imam Malik is based upon the comprehensions of Abdullah Ibn Umr and Ummul momineen Aisha bint Abu Bakr and the knowledge of ‘tabi’een’ viz; Saeed Ibn Musaib, Salim Ibn Abdullah, Abu Bakr Ibn Abdur Rahman Ibn al Harith, Ubaidullah Ibn A’ataba Ibn Masud, Qasim Ibn Abi Bakr, Suleman Ibn Yasar, Khareja Ibn Zaid and Abu Zuhri.
Malik was vehemently opposed to any forms of bid'ah and even directed others not to extend the Islamic greeting of Salam to the people of bidah, stating, "how evil are the ‘People of Innuendo’, we do not give them felicitations”.
Hardships and persecutions in life:
Imam Malik was treated severely when he issued fatwas against being forced to pledge allegiance to the Caliph Al-Mansur. He was to forced to ride on a donkey and also flogged 70 times when he also issued a fatwa that talaq (divorce) under coercion is not valid.
Academic work and books autherted:
Imam Malik has 11 publications to his credit. (i) al Mawatta (ii) Risalatal Malik ila al Rasheed. (iii) Ahkam al Qura’n (iv) al Muddawwana al Kubra (v) Risalatal Malik ila Ibn Mutref (vi) Risalatal Malik ila Ibn Wahb (vii) Kitab al Qazzia (viii) Kitab al Manasik (ix) Tafseer Gharib al Qur’an (x) Kitab al Majalisat en Malik and (xi) Tafseer al Qur’an.
The scholars of ahadith have included al Mawatta amongst the top most authentic books on ahadith. Imam Shafa’I (d. 204 H) who was a student of Imam Malik says: “ after Qura’n, on the surface of the earth, there is no other book on earth more authentic and trustworthy than Imam Malik’s al Mawatta”.
He died on Rabi al awwal 11, 179 H, after an illness of 3 weeks, at the age of 86. A mammoth of humanity was gathered at the funeral procession. The ameer of Madina Abdullah ibn Muhammad Hashmi was also included n the procession. Imam Malik was buried in the grave yard ‘ the janna al baqi’i.
2- Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal ( 164 – 241 H)
Name Ahmad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Abdullah, father’s name Muhammad Ibn Hanbal. Ahmad ibn Hanbal's family was originally from Basra, Iraq, and belonged to the Arab Banu Shayban tribe. His father was an officer in the Abbasid army in Khorasan and later settled with his family in Baghdad, where Ahmad ibn Hanbal was born. The Hanbali madhab, named after him, is one of the four schools of jurisprudence that are followed by Sunni Muslims to this day.
Imam Ahmad traveled for 40 long years, through Iraq, Syria and Arabia, for Islamic learning and collecting ahadith from different sources.
Teachers of Imam Ahmad:
Imam Abu Yousuf, Imam Haithem ibn Bashir ibn Abu Hazim al Wasti, Yahya ibn Saeed Qattan and Sufyan ibn Aaiena were Imam Ahmad’s teachers in Baghdad. From Basra Abdur Rahman ibn Mehdi and from Koofa Wakey ibn Jarrah were his teachers. In 187 H, he met Imam Shafa’I and became his disciple. “ I have not seen a man like (Imam) Ahmad” says Imam Ahmad for Imam Shafa’i. On the othe side Imam Shafa’I says, ”I am leaving Baghdad in such a state that there is not a person who has more knowledge, greater jurisprudent or having greater taqwa (piety) than Ahmad Ibn Hanbal”.
Students of Imam Ahmad:
Hafiz Zahabi in his book writes that apart from thousands of his students the distinguished were; Bukhar, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Abu Zar’a, Abdullah ibn Ahmad, Ibn Taimyiah, Ishaq ibn Mansoor, Abu Bakr al Asram, Hanbal ibn Ishaq, Abu Dawood al Sajistai, Harab ibn al Kirmani, Ibrahim ibn Ishaq Harabi etc.
Hardships and persecutions in life:
During the period of Abbasid Caliph Mamun ur Rasheed the ideology of Mutallazide was in practice, and according to that ideology Qura’n was a creation of Allah like other creations. Imam Hanbal refused to accept this ideology for which he was persecuted. When Mutawakkil became Khlifa after al Mo’atasim, Imam Ahmad’s persecutions came to an end.
Academic work and books authored:
The following is the list of his contributions;
- Kitab al-`Ilal wa Ma‘rifat al-Rijal: "The Book of Narrations Containing Hidden Flaws and of Knowledge of the Men (of Hadeeth)" Riyad: Al-Maktabah al-Islamiyyah
- Kitab al-Manasik: "The Book of the Rites of Hajj"
- Kitab al-Zuhd: "The Book of Abstinence" ed. Muhammad Zaghlul, Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi, 1994
- Kitab al-Iman: "The Book of Faith"
- Kitab al-Masa'il "Issues in Fiqh"
- Kitab al-Ashribah: "The Book of Drinks"
- Kitab al-Fada'il Sahaba: "Virtues of the Companions"
- Kitab Tha'ah al-Rasul : "The Book of Obedience to the Messenger"
- Kitab Mansukh: "The Book of Abrogation"
- Kitab al-Fara'id: "The Book of Obligatory Duties"
- Kitab al-Radd `ala al-Zanadiqa wa'l-Jahmiyya "Refutations of the Heretics and the Jahmites" (Cairo: 1973)
- Tafsir : "Exegesis"
- the Musnad
Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal:
It is said that Ibn Hanbal made a comment in regards to his book which read as follows: "There is not a hadith that I have included in this book except that it was used as evidence by some of the scholars."
On Friday, the 12 of Rabi' al-Awwal 241 AH, the legendary Imam breathed his last. The news of his death quickly spread far and wide in the city and the people flooded the streets to attend Ahmad’s funeral. When he died, he was accompanied to his resting place by a funeral procession of eight hundred thousand men (800,000) to One million and three hundred thousands men (1,300,000) or arround two million people (2,000,000) as was estimated by few scholars attending the funeral  and sixty thousand women (60,000), marking the departure of the last of the four great mujtahid Imams of Islam.
Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Abdur Rahman Daarmi is included amongst the renowned ‘muhaddathin’ (compilers of hadith). He was born in Samarqand and belonged to to branch – daarem- a one of the tribes of ‘tameem’, and for that reason he is called ‘daarmi’. Imam Daarmi traveled through Syria, Baghdad, Egypt, Iraq, Khurasaan, Mecca and Madina to acquire knowledge and collect ahadith.3- Imam Daarmi (181 – 255 H)
Teacher of Imam Daarmi:
Amongst his teachers were ibn Maja, Habban ibn Hilal, Nazar ibn Shameil, Yazid ibn Haroon and Hayota ibn Shareeh.
Students of Imam Daarmi:
Imam Daarmi had a vast circle of students, including the great Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Tirmizi, Imam abu Dawood and Imam Nisaii. Apart from thes, Imam Abu Zar’a and Abu Hatim are also amongst his students.
Academic work and publications:
These include; (i) Kitab al Tafseer, (ii) Kitab al Jamae, (iii) Sunan al Daarmi
Sunan al Daarmi:
It includes 1508 sections and ahadith. Hafiz ibn Hajar Isqalaani graraded Sunan al Daarmi over Sunan ibn Maaja.
At the age of 75 years Imam Daarmi died on 8 Dhul Hajja 255 H. Imam Bukhari along with others was deeply aggrieved over his demise.
Name Muhammad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Abdullah, father’s name Ismail, grand father’s name Ibrahim, Imam’s great grand father Mugheera embraced Islam. Imam Bukhari was born on 13 Shawwal 194 H in Bukhara.4- Imam Bukhari (194 – 256 H)
Imam Bukari’s teachers:
Imam Bukhari got his early education by the Bukhara scholars viz; Muhamman ibn Salam Bekandi, Muhammad ibn Yousuf Bekandi, Abdullah ibn Muhammad Masnadi and Ibrahim ibn al Asa’as. Amongst his teachers at later stage Ishaq ibn Rahuyia and Ali ibn Madini had great influence on Imam’s thoughts. Other teachers include Abu Aasim, Qutaiba ibn Saeed, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Yahya ibn Moin.
At age of sixteen, he, together with his brother and widowed mother made the pilgrimage to Makkah. From there he made a series of travels in order to increase his knowledge of hadith. He went through all the important centres of Islamic learning of his time, talked to scholars and exchanged information on hadith. It is said that he heard from over 1,000 men, and learned over 700,000 traditions.
After sixteen years' absence he returned to Bukhara, and there drew up his al-Jami' as-Sahih, a collection of 7,275 tested traditions, arranged in chapters so as to afford bases for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law.
Imam Bukhari’s students:
He had thousands of pupil who were benefited by Imam’s teaching. The most prominents of his pupil include; Imam Muslim, Imam Tirmizi, Imam Shoib Nisaii. Apart from the Imam Zara’a, Abu Hatim, Ibn Khuzema and Muhammad ibn Nasr Maruzi are also included in Imam’s students.
Imam Muslim said for Imam Bukhari that;” I declare that there is no other person is born like you”.
Imam ibn Khuzaima says; “Under the sky I have not seen such a learned person greater than Imam Bukhari
Imam Ibn Hajar says; “If all the comments of kudos are to be write down, it will require a sea of ink”.
Academic work and publications:
About two dozen books are on the credit of Imam Bukhari. These include; Al Tarikh al Kabeer, Al Tarikh al Sagheer, Al Tarikh al Wast, Al Tafseer al Kabeer, Al Jamae al Kabeer and the esteemed Al Jamae al Saheeh al Bukhari.
The actual title of this book is; ‘Al Jamae al Masnad al Saheeh al Mukhtaser min Rasulallah sallal laho elaihe wassalum wa sunnah wa ayyama’. It is also called al Jamae for the reason it includes ahadith regarding almost every thing, viz, aqeeda (belif), ehkaam (commandments), adaab (regard), tafseer, history, shimail (good qualities), fitn (sedition), signs of the last day etc,etc.
Imam’s ‘mazhab’ (School of thought):
According to ibn Hajar Imam Bukhai was Shafaii, but Hafiz ibn Qayyam says, he is Hanbali. According to Allama Tahir al Jazairi and Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Imam Bukhari was a ‘ghair muqallad’ (non follower).
Ibn Taymiyyah was asked whether Bukhari was qualified to deduce his own conditions in jurisprudence, not adhering to the school of any of the Imams, or was he not so qualified and had to adhere to a school. He responded that Bukhari was "an imam in jurisprudence, a scholar capable of deducing his own rulings, 'min ahl al-ijtihad.'"
He is recorded as being both anti-Mu'tazili and anti-Rafidhi. In one of his books on creed, he wrote: “I don’t see any difference between praying Salah behind a Jahmi or a Rafidhi and a Christian or a Jew. They (Jahmiyyah/Rāfida) are not to be greeted, nor are they to be visited, nor are they to be married, nor is their testimony to be accepted, nor are their sacrifices to be eaten.”. Khalq Af’ālul-’Ibād, p.14
Hardships and persecutions:
The ruler of Bukhara Khalid ibn Ahmad Zahlee asked Imam Bukhari to teach his children at his palace. On his refusal, Imam was exiled from Bukhara on fase charges, so he shifted to Samarkand.
Imam Bukhari died on Shawwal 1, 256 H at the age of 62 and is buried in Samarkand.
Name Muslim, kunniyah (agnomen) Abul Husain, nickname Asakar uddin, Father’s name Hujaj. Imam Muslim was born in the city Nishapur of Khurasan (present day north eastern Iran)in 204 H. Imam got his early education in Nishapur from Imam Iahaq ibn Rahuyia.5- Imam Muslim (204 – 261 H)
Imam Muslim’s teachers:
Imam’s mentors include; Imam Bukhari, Muhammad ibn Yahya Zuhali, Saeed ibn Mansoor, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahuyia, Abdullah ibn Muslema Qa’nabee, Ismail ibn Abi Idrees, Amr ibn Sawar etc.
Imam had hundereds of students but the most prominent were; Imam Tirmizi, Imam ibn Khuzaima and Imam Abu Hatim Razi.
Imam’s ‘mazhab’ (school of thought):
According to Shaikh Tahir al Jazairee, Imam Muslim was not a follower of any Imam, however his tilt was towards Imam Shafaii.
Imam Muslim’s academic work and publications:
Imam has got more than one dozen publications to his credit. The outstanding one is the’ al Jamae al Saheeh al Muslim, the rest includes; i) al Musnad al Kabeer ii) Kitab ul Illal iii) Kitab al Jamae illal albab iv) Kitab al Wahdan v) Kitab al efrad vi) Kitab Mashaikh al Malik vi) Kitab Sawalat Ahmad ibn Hanbal vii) kitab Hadith amr ibn Shoib viii) Kitab auwlad al Sahaaba ix) Kitab Mashaikh al Thora x) Kitab Mashaikh al Shaaba xi) Kitab Auham al Muhaddathin xii) Kitab al Mukhdarmin and so many others.
Imam Muslim’s ‘al Jamae al Shahheh’ is the second most authentic book of hadith, besides Saheeh Bukhari. This book was compiled in 15 years of rigorous mental and physical labour. Imam collected in all 300,000 ahadith out of which 4000 ahadith are included in his al Saheeh after non-inclusion of repeated ahadith.
He died at the age of 57 in 261 H in Nishapur where he is buried.
Name Muhammad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Abdullah, nick name ibn Maja, father’s name Yazid Ibn Abdullah. Regarding ‘ Maja’ there is a difference of opinion some say it is the name of Imam’s grand father, other say it is the name of Imam’s mother. Ibn Maja was born in 209 H in Iranian city of Qazwin.6- Imam ibn Maja ( 209 – 273 H)
It is believed that he got his learning from more than 300 teachers. These include; Imam Ibrahim ibn Munzar Hizami, Muhammad ibn Abi Khalid, Abu Bakr Qazwinee, Haroon ibn Musa ibn Hayyan Tamimi, Amr ibn Rafae Abul Hajar, Abu Bakr ibn Shaiba, Jabbar ibn Mughlis, Sahal ibn Ishaq, Hamdan ibn Ammara, Abdullah ibn Muawia, Hishham ibn Ammara, Muhammad ibn Saeed, Imam Dawoob ibn Rasheed, etc.
Imam’s ‘madhab’ (school of thought):
. The factual madhab of Imam Maja remained disputed. According to Tahir al Jazairi Imam Maja was not follower of any Imam. Shah Waliullah was of the opinion that Imam Maje was Hanbali, Anwar Shah Kashmiri opined that he was Shafaii.
Imam Maja’s academic work and publications:
Three major publications are attributed towards Imam Maja. These are; i) al Tafseer ii) al Tarikh and iii) al Sunnan.
Sunnan ibn Maja:
This book is the most distinguished contribution towards hadith compilations. It is included amongst the six top most authentic books of ahadith. It includes 1500 sections and 4000 ahadith and more importantly there is no repetition of ahadith.
Imam Maja died on 22 Ramdhan, 273 H, at the age of 64 years in Qazwin.
Name Suleman, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Dawood, father’s name Asha’t ibn Ishaq. He was born in Sajistan in east of Iran. His forefathers belonged to an Yemeni Arab tribe Azd.7- Imam Abu Dawood Sajastani (206 – 275 H)
Amongst the renowned teachers of Imam are; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahuyia, Abu thor, Yahya ibn Moin, Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaiba, Muslim ibn Ibrahim, Qutaiba ibn Saeed.
Students of Imam Abu Dawood:
Apart from hundereds of his pupil the most outstanding one are; Abu Abdur Rahman Ahmad ibn Shoib Nisai, Abu Amr, Abu Saeed, Abu Esa Ishaq, Abu Ubaid Muhammad ibn Ali, Imam Tirmizi, Imam Nisai, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abdur Razzaq, Abul Hasan Ali ibn Hasan etc.
Imam’s academic work and publications:
Imam spend whole of his life as a student and then as a teacher. However he spared time to write the following books; i) al Sunnan ii) Kitab al marasil iii) Kitab al nasikh wa al Mansukh iv) Kitab al Masail v) Kitab al rad ela ahlul Qadar vi) Kitab Nazam al Qir’an vii) Akhbar al Khawarij viii) Kitab al Fazail al Ansar ix) Kitab al ba’s wa al Nashoor, x) Kitab Fazail al Qura’n xi) Kitab al Du’a xii) Kitab al Tafseer
Sunnan abi Dawood:
This book is included amongst the top six/seven most authetic books of ahadith. Out of about 500,000 hadith, he chose 4,800 for inclusion in his work.
Imam Abu Dawood’s ‘madhab’ (school of thought):
Like other distinguished Imam there is a conflict amongst scholars that what was the ‘madhab’ if Abu Dawood. However, while referring to Ibn Taimyyia Anwar Shah Kashmiri said, that Abu Dawood was Hanbali. This claim is proved while going through his Sunnan.
Abu Dawood spend almost all his life in Baghdad, but he shifted to Basra during his last days. He died ther in Basra on 12 Shawwal 275 H at the age of 72 years.
Name Muhammad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Esa, father’s name Esa. He was born in 209 H, in a suburb city of Termez, Greater Khorasan (now in Uzbekistan), to a family of the widespread Banū Sulaym tribe.8- Imam Tirmizi (209 – 279 H)
Teachers of Imam Tirmizi:
His teachers include; Ibrahim ibn Abdullah Harvi, Ismail ibn Musa Asadi, Ali ibn Hajar, Qutaiba ibn Saeed, Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Imam Abu Dawood.
Imam Tirmizi’s academic work and publications:
Following are the books ascribed to Imam; i) al Jamae al Tirmizi ii) Kitab al illal iii) Kitab al Tarikh iv) Kitab al Zuhad v) Kitab al Sam’a wa al kani vi) Kitab al Shamail al Nabvua vii) Kitab al Mefrid.
Al Jamae al Tirmizi:
Undisputedly this book is included amongst the top six/seven most reliable books of ahadith.
Imam Tirmizi’s ‘madhab’ (school of thought):
There is a dispute about the ‘madhab’ of Imam Timizi amongst scholars. Muslim scholar are of the opinion that he himself was ‘mujtahhid’ and non-follower. However , some scholars opined that he has a tilt towards Shafaii ‘madhab’.
He died in Termiz at the age of 70 in 279 H and is also buried there.
Name Ahmad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Abdur Rahman, father’s name Shoaib. As he was born in the city of Nisa of Khurasan, he is also called Nisaii. He traveled through Iraq, Hijaz, Egypt and other places to acquire knowledge and settled in Egypt.9 - Imam Nisaii (215 – 303 H)
Imam’s teachers include; Qutaiba ibn Saeed, Muhammad ibn Beshar, Ishaq ibn Rahuyia, Esa ibn Hammad, Mehmood ibn Ghailaan, Husain ibn Mansoor, Muhammad ibn Nasr Maruzi , Imam Bukhari and Imam Abu Dawood.
Amongst hundereds of students the renowned one are; Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ishaq, Hasan ibn Raseeq, Ibrahim bn Muhammad ibn Saleh, Abul Qasim Tibrani, Muhammad ibn Muwayia, Muhammad ibn Qasim Undulasi, Abu Jafar Tahavi, Abu A’wana, Abu Ali Kinani and his own son Abdul Karim.
Imam Nisaii’s academic work and publications:
Numerous publications are attributed towards Imam, a few of them are; i) al Sunnan al Kubra, ii) al Mujtaba also known as Sunnan al Sughra, iii) Khsais Ali, iv) Munad Ali, v) Musnad Malik, vi) Fazail al Sahaaba, vii) Kitab al Jirah wa al Ta’adeel etc. Out of these al-Sunnan has outstanding position.
Al Sunnan Nisaii is in fact Al Mujtaba (al Sunnan Kubra). This includes only ‘saheeh’ ahadith, whereas al Sunnan Kubra includes both ‘saheeh’ and ‘hasan’ ahadith.
Imam Nisaii’s ‘madhab’ (school of thought):
According to Shah Waliullah Dehalvi, Imam Nisaii was of Shafaii ‘madhab’. Anwar Shah Kashmiri is of the opinion that he was ‘hanbali’.
Imam Nisaii spend all his life in Egypt, however in his last days he migrated to Ramala in Damascu and died there at the age of 88 years in 303 H.
Name Ahmad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Jafar, father’s name Muhammad ibn Salama. Born in 321 H in Taha a city of Egypt, hence called Tahavi.10- Imam Tahavi (229 – 321)
Teachers of Imam Tahavi:
Imam got guidance from Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim. He also got his learning from Yunus ibn Abdul A’a la, Haroon ibn Saeed Ailee, Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Hakeem, Bahr ibn Nasr, Esa ibn Sharud. He went to Syria to be guided by Abu Hazim Qazi.
Imam’s ‘madhab’ (school of thought):
Initially he was Shafii but after meeting with Ahmad ibn Abu Imran – the Qazi of Egypt- he became ‘Hanafi’.
Apart from several books credited to his name, following include; i) Ma’ani al A’asar, ii) Kitab Ehkam al Qur’an iii) Shrah Mushkil al A’sar, iii) Kitab al Sharut al Kabeer, iv) Kitab al Sharut al Wast, v) Kitab al Sharut al Sagheer, vi) Tarikh al Kabeer, vii) Sunnan al Shafaii, this is also called Sunnan al Tahavi, etc.
Ma’ani al A’asar:
It is also called Sharahe Ma’ani al A’asar. Allama Ainee said this book can be preferred above Sunnan Abu Dawood, aj Jamae Trmizi and Sunnan Ibn Maja. Allama Ibn Hazm equalize this book with Sunnan Abu Dawood and Sunnan an Nisaii. Anwar Shah Kashmiri is of the opinion that this book can be rated very close to Sunnan Abu Dawood.
A very brief history of some other important ‘muhaddathin’ (Compilers of ahadith).PART - C
Name Abdullah, fathers name Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Usman al Abasee. Nick name ibn Abi Shaiba. He was a great ‘muhaddith’. Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim Imam Tirmizi and Imam Abu Dawood listened ahadith from him. His most worth-mentioning book is ‘ Musannaf ibn Abi Shaiba’.1 - Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaiba (159 – 235 H)
Name Muhammad ibn Idrees ibn Munzer ibn Dawood ibn Mehran Abu Hatim Hanzali Razi. There is a consensus amongst muslim scholar about his authority on science of hadith. Once he called his son Abdur Rahman and said “ I have traveled more than three thousand miles on foot in search of saheeh ahadith”.2 - Abu Hatim Razi ( 190 – 277 H)
Name Muhammad, kunniyah (agnomen), father’s name Jareer ibn Yazid ibn Kathir ibn Ghalib Tibree. With his creditability he stands along with Imam Tirmizi and Imam Nisaii. He acquired knowledge from Imam Bukhari and Muslim. Ibn Jareer is alco called ‘ imam al mufassareen’. The most distinguished of his publications is ‘Tarikh al Ummam al Mamluk’, famously known as ‘Tarikh al Tibree’.3 - Muhammad ibn Jareer Tibree (244 – 310 H)
Name Muhammad, father’s name ibn Ishaq Abu Bakr ibn Khuzaima . He was a great Imam and ‘muhaddith’.He heard ahadith from greats like Ishaq ibn Rahuyyia, Muhammad ibn Hameed, Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim. Ibn Khuzaima has more than 140 publications in his name; it includes ‘al Saheeh’ which was a great contribution towards hadith compilations.4 - Imam ibn Khuzaima ( 223 – 311 H)
Name Sulaiman, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu al Qasim, father’s name Ahmad ibn Ayyub Tibranee. He was born in Akka a city of Syria. During his learning he traveled through Hijaz, Yemen, Egypt, Baghdad, Kufa, Basra and Isphahan. He learned ahadith from Ali ibn Abdul Aziz, Baghvi, Basr ibn Musa, Abu Zar’a Damashiqi. His students include the distinguished Hafiz Abu Naeem Isphahani .5 - Imam Tibranee (260 – 360 H)
His books on ahadith include; i) al Mu’ajim al Kabeer, ii) al Mu’ajim al Wast, iii) al Mu’ajim al Sagheer, iv) Kitab al Masalik, v) Kitab ad Du’a, vi) Dalail al Nabwwah. It was not certain wether he was a Shafaii or a ‘mujtahhid’. He died on 28 Dhul Qaida, 360 H.
Name Muhammad, father’s name Habban ibn Ahmad ibn Habban Tamimee. He was in a small town of ‘Bust” of Ghazni Hiraat. He traveled through Iraq, Syria, Hijaz, Khurasan, Turkistan, Kufa, Mecca and other places to gain knowledge. Hr acquired the knowledge from Imam Nisaii, Abu Yaala Muslee, Hasan ibn Sufyan and Abu Bakr ibn Khuzaima and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ishaq. He was also the Chief Justice of Samarkand. Amongst his students, the most prominent one is Imam Abu Abdullah Hakim. Some say he was Shafaii and other say he was a non-follower and a ‘mujtahhid’.6 - Imam Ibn Habban ( 275 – 354 H)
His publications include; Kitab al Sahaaba, Kitab al Tabieen. Saheeh ibn Habban his most famous book. He died on 24 Shawwal 354 H in his birth place.
Name Ali, kunniyah ( agnomen) Abul Hasan, father’s name Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi . He was born in ‘Dar Qatan’ a place in Baghdad. His students include; Imam Abu Abdullah Hakim and Imam Abu Naeem Isphahani. He travelled through Kufa, Basra, Syria, Egypt and other places to gather ahadith.7 - Imam Dar Qatani (306 - 385 H)
Amongst his other publications, a few prominent one are; al Sunnan and Akitab illal al Hadith. Allama Sayuti is of the opinion that this Sunnan Dar Qatani stands just after the six/seven most authentic books of ahadith. He is believed to be Shafii but some disagree with this belief. He died on 8 Dhul Qaida, 385 H.
Name Muhammad, father’s name Abdullah ibn Muhammad. As he remained ‘Qazi’ (judge) he is also called as ‘Hakim”. He was born on 3 Rabi al Awwal, 321 H, in the city of Nishapur of Khurasan. Imam Abul Hasan Dar Qatani was one of his renowned teacher and Imam Baiqahee as his pupil.8 - Abu Abdullah Hakim (321 – 405 H)
Hafiz Zuhabi in his book ‘Tazkara al Huffaz’ has written that around 1000 books are written by Hakim. These include; i) Tafseer al Qur’an, ii) al Mustadark ela al Sahihain, iii) Tarikh Nishapur, iv) Mu’arafat Uloom al Hadith etc. Mutadark Kakim is the most distinguished work of Imam Hakim. Hakim died on 3 Safar al Muharram, 405 H at the age of 84 years in Nishapur.
Name Ali, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Muhammad, father’s name Ahmad ibn Saeed ibn Hazm Qartabee. He was born in Qartaba (Cordoba), Undlus (Spain). Ibn Hazm was born into a notable family. His great-grandfather Hazm was a convert to Islam, his grandfather Sa'id moved to Córdoba and his father Ahmad both held high advisory positions in the court of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham II. The family claimed to be of Persian descent.9 – Ibn Hazm (384 – 456 H)
He is reported 400 works of which only 40 still survive, covering a range of topics such as Islamic jurisprudence, logic, history, ethics, comparative religion, and theology. The most worth mentioning books are; Al-Fisal fi al-Milal wa al-Ahwa' wa al-Nihal, Al-Mujalla, Maratib al Ulum, Kitab al Nasikh al Mansukh etc. He was very strict in determining the status of ahadith and some times used to confront Imam Tirmizi and Imam Baghvi in this respect.
Name Ahmad, father’s name Hussain ibn Ali al Bayhaqi was born in Bayhaq in Nishapur, Khurasan. Al-Bayhaqi was a scholar of fiqh, of the Shafi'i school of thought as well as hadith. He studied fiqh from Abu al-Fath Nasir ibn al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Naysaburi, among others. He also studied hadith from Hakim al-Nishaburi and was his foremost pupil, among others in that subject as well.10 – Imam Bayhaqi (384 – 458 H)
Imam Bayhaqi was a follower of Shafai ‘madhab’. According to Imam al Dhahabi, he authored hundereds of books. Among the most well known books are; i) Al-Sunan al-Kubra, commonly known as Sunan al-Bayhaqi, ii) Ma`arifa al-Sunan wa al-Athar, iii) Bayan Khata Man Akhta`a `Ala al-Shafi`i (The Exposition of the Error of Those who have Attributed Error to al-Shafi`i), iv) Al-Mabsut, a book on Shafi`i Law, v) Al-Asma' wa al-Sifat (The Divine Names and Attributes), vi) Al-I`tiqad `ala Madhhab al-Salaf Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a,Dala'il al-Nubuwwah (The Signs of Prophethood), vii) Shu`ab al-Iman (The branches of faith), viii) Al-Da`awat al-Kabir (The Major Book of Supplications), ix) Al-Zuhd al-Kabir (The Major Book of Asceticism)
Imam died in Nishapur at the age of 74 years on 10 Jamadi al Awwal, 458 H and was buried in Bayhaq in his home place.
Name Abu Bakr Ahmad, fathe’s name Ali ibn Thabit ibn Muhammad was born on 24 Jamade al-Thani, 392 H in Darzidjan, a small town south of Baghdad. At the death of his father, Imam Khateeb at the age of 20 years he went to Basra for the search of ahadith. In this search he also traveled to Kufa, Nishapur, Isphahan, Hamdan, Mecca, Madina and Iraq. Imam Abu Ishaq Shirazi was one of his teachers.11- Khateeb al Baghdadi ( 392 – 463 H)
He wrote more than 100 books on science and terminologies of ahadith. He was also called as ‘ Hafiz Mashriq’. His written work includes; i) Ta'rikh Baghdad: The History of Baghdad, ii) al-Kifaya fi ma'rifat usul 'ilm al-riwaya: an early work dealing with Hadith terminology, iii) al-Djami' li-akhlak al-rawi wa-adab al-sami, iv) Takyid al-'ilm, v) Sharaf ashab al-hadith, vi) al-Sabik wa 'l-lahik: dealing with hadith narrators of a particular type; vii) al-Mu'tanif fi takmilat al-Mu'talif wa 'l-mukhtalif, viii) al-Muttafik wa 'l-muftarik, ix) Talkhis al-mutashabih fi 'l-rasm wa-himayat ma ashkala minhu min nawadir al-tashif wa 'l-wahm, x) al-Asma' al-mubhama fi 'l-anba' al-muhkama: identifying unnamed individuals mentioned in hadith, xi) al-Rihla fi talab al-hadith, xii) Iktida' al-'ilm al-'amal.
Imam al Baghdadi was initially a follower of Hanbali school of thought but later he changed to Shaafii ‘madhab’. He died on 7 Dhul Hajja, 463 H at the age of 71.
Abu Muhammad al-Husayn ibn Mas'ud ibn Muhammad al-Farra' al-Baghawi was born in 433 H in ‘Bugh’ a small village near Herat in Khurasan. It is reported that this village exists no more.12 – Imam Baghawi ( 435 – 516 H)
Imam Baghawi was a renowned Persian Muslim Mufassir, hadith scholar. He has written numerous books but the book Masabih al-Sunnah elevated him to the pedestal of Imam. He also wrote ‘tafseer of Qura’n titled as ‘ Mualim al Tanzil. Other books include; i) Al-Tahdhīb fī fiqh al-imām al-Shāfiī ḥ al-sunnah, ii) Masabih al-Sunnah, iii) Al-Anwār fī shamāil al-Nabī al-Mukhtār, iv) Al-Jam bayna al-Ṣaḥīḥayn, v) Al-Arbīn ḥadīthan, vi) Majmūah min al-fatāwā.
Although Imam Baghawi was a ‘mujtahhid’ but he followed Shaafii ‘madhab’. He died in 516 H
Abu Zakaria Mohiuddin Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi popularly known as Imam Nawawi . He was born at Nawa in the south of Damascus, Syria. His position on legal matters is considered the authoritative one in the Shafi'i Madhhab.13 – Imam Nawwi ( 631 – 676 H)
He studied in Damascus from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage he settled there as a private scholar. His father, a virtuous and pious man, resolved to arrange for proper and befitting education as he had discovered the symptoms of heavenly intelligence and wisdom in his promising child at an early stage.
His teachers were regarded as authority of their subjects they taught, these include; Abu Ibrahim Ishaq bin Ahmad AI-Maghribi, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Radiyuddin Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abu Hafs Umar bin Mudar Al-Mudari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi, Abul-Baqa Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Salim Al-Misri, Abu Abdullah Al-Jiyani, Abul-Fath Umar bin Bandar, Abu Muhammad At-Tanukhi, Sharafuddin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad Al-Ansari, Abul-Faraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Maqdisi, Abul-Fada'il Sallar bin Al-Hasan Al Arbali etc.
There were hundreds of Imam's students, among them some notables are: Alauddin bin Attar, Ibn Abbas Ahmad bin Ibrahim, Abul-Abbas Al-Ja'fari, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Farah, Rashid Ismail bin Mu'allim Al-Hanafi, Abu Abdullah Al-Hanbali, AbulAbbas Al-Wasti, Jamaluddin Sulaiman bin Omar Az-Zar'i, AbulFaraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Abdul-Hamid AlMaqdisi, Badr Muhammad bin Ibrahim, Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr, Ash-Shihab Muhammad bin Abdul-Khaliq, Hibatullah Al-Barizi, Abul-Hajjaj Yusuf bin Az-Zaki etc.
During his short life of only 45 years, he wrote many books on Islamic studies and other topics. He collected and sourced 40 hadith of the Prophet Mohammed back to one of his companions. His work include:Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim ,Riyadh as-Saaliheen , al-Majmu' sharh al-Muhadhdhab ,Minhaj al-Talibin ,Tahdhib al-Asma wal-,Taqrib al-Taisir.,Forty Hadiths ,Kitab al-Adhkar ,al-Tibyan fi adab Hamalat al-Quran ,Adab al-fatwa wa al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti ,al-Tarkhis fi al-Qiyam ,Manasik ,Sharh Sunan Abu Dawood,Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari,Mukhtasar at-Tirmidhi,Tabaqat ash-Shafi'iyah,Rawdhat al-Talibeen,Bustan al-`arifin.
Imam Nawwai was a follower of Shaafii ‘madhab’. He died at a young age of 45 years on Rajab 24, 676 H.
Name Ahmad, alias Taqi ad-Din, Kunniyah (agnomen) Abu al Abbas and nick name ibn Taymiyyah was born in a religious family, in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. Initially he adopted the kunniyah (agnomen) Abu al Abbas, but the family name remained dominant and is known with it.14 – Imam Taymiyyah ( 654 – 742 H)
After the invasion of Mongols, when ibn Taymiyyah was 7 years old, he and his family shifted to Damuscus where the Mamluks of Egypt were the rulers.
Ibn Taymiyyah studied the religion, Arabic literature, calligraphy and mathematics. He also learned Islamic jurisprudence from his father and become a distinguished scholar of ‘hanbali ‘madhab’.
Imam Taymiyyah also studied philosophy and very severly crticised Greek philosophy. When in 658 H Tataries invaded Damuscus, Syria he faught against them. The Chtistians, on the other hand, welcomed them and propagated that it is not obligatory for Christians to have faith on the last Prophet sws and be converted to Islam. Imam Taymiyyah very vehemently countered this propaganda and wrote his famous book ‘ Al Jwab al Saheeh lamin Baddal Deen al Maseeh’, in 4 volumes and crtically analysed the Chritianity and refuted the ‘trinity’.
After Christianity Imam Taymiyyah opposed ‘Shiaism’ and wrote a 4 volume book ‘ Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabwwia fi Kalam al Shiia wa al Qadria’. In that he refuted Shia scholar ibn al Mutthar al Hilli’s theory that Ali ra and the ‘ahle al ba’it’ are the only successors of Islamic caliphate.
Imam also stood against all those unislamic traditions which have intruded into Islamic society. He also objected and crticised upon asking blessings from the dead ones in the graves.
Ibn Taymiyyah was an example of truthfulness and outspokenness and could not tolerate an iota of wrongness regarding ‘Sharia’. For the reason he faced three pronged opposition viz, i) Sufies, ii) Shiiats and iii) ahle al bidda. Ibn Taymiya was imprisoned several times for conflicting with the ijmaof jurists and theologians of his day. He spent his last fifteen years in Damascus. Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned for supporting a doctrine that would curtail the ease with which a Muslim man could divorce his wife.
When he was ultimately banned from having any books, papers and pens during the latter stage of his final imprisonment, Ibn Taymiyyah devoted all of his time to worship and reciting the Qur'an. Ibn Taymiyyah died in prison on 22 Dhu al-Qai'dah, 728 H
Ibn Taymiyyah left a considerable body of work (350 works listed by his student Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya and 500 by other student al-Dhahabi) that has been republished extensively in Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and India. His work extended his religious and political involvements. Extant books and essays written by ibn Taymiyyah include:
- A Great Compilation of Fatwa—(Majmu al-Fatwa al-Kubra) This was collected centuries after his death, and contains several of the works mentioned below.
- Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah—(The Pathway of as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah)—Volumes 1–4
- Majmoo' al-Fatawa—(Compilation of Fatawa) Volumes 1–36
- al-Aqeedah Al-Hamawiyyah—(The Creed to the People of Hamawiyyah)
- Al-Aqidah Al-Waasitiyyah—(The Creed to the People of Waasittiyah)
- al-Asma wa's-Sifaat—(Allah's Names and Attributes) Volumes 1–2
- al-Jawab as Sahih li man Baddala Din al-Masih (Literally, "The Correct Response to those who have Corrupted the Deen (Religion) of the Messiah"; A Muslim theologian's response to Christianity)—seven volumes, over a thousand pages.
- as-Sarim al-Maslul ‘ala Shatim ar-Rasul—The Drawn Sword against those who insult the Messenger. Written in response to an incident in which Ibn Taymiyyah heard a Christian insulting Muhammad. The book is well-known because he wrote it entirely by memory, while in jail, and quoting more than hundreds of references.
- Fatawa al-Kubra
- Fatawa al-Misriyyah
- ar-Radd 'ala al-Mantiqiyyin (Refutation of Greek Logicians)
- Naqd at-Ta'sis
- al-Uboodiyyah—(Subjection to God)
- Iqtida' as-Sirat al-Mustaqim'—(Following The Straight Path)
- al-Siyasa al-shar'iyya
- at-Tawassul wal-Waseela
- Sharh Futuh al-Ghayb—(Commentary on Revelations of the Unseen by Abdul-Qadir Gilani)
Some of his other works have been translated to English. They include:
- The Friends of Allah and the Friends of Shaytan
- Kitab al Iman: The Book of Faith
- Diseases of the Hearts and their Cures
- The Relief from Distress
- Fundamentals of Enjoining Good & Forbidding Evil
- The Concise Legacy
- The Goodly Word
- The Madinan Way
- Ibn Taymiyya against the Greek logicians
Name Muhammad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Abdullah, nick name Waliuddin, famed as Khateeb Tabrezi. He was in Tabrez a city of Aazirbaijan. His ancestors were linked to Umar al Farooq ra for the reason he is also called as’ Umri’.15 - Imam Khateeb Tabrezi ( - 737 H)
Allama Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Abdullah Tayyabi was one of his teachers and Imamuddin Ali ibn Mubarek is one of his distinguished pupil. Khateeb was a follower of Shaafii ‘madhab’.
Khateeb’s date of birth as well as death is not available. However it can be said that he died after 737 H.
Khateeb Tabrezi wrote a number of books but his most outstanding work is the ‘ Mishkat al Masabeeh’ that was written on the advice of his teacher Allama Hussain ibn Muhammad. This book was completed in 737 H.
Name Shamsuddin, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Abdullah Muhammad, father’s name Ahmad ibn Uthman, nick named as Hafiz Dhahabi. He was in Damuscus.16- Hafiz Dhahabi (673 – 748 H)
He began his study of hadith at age eighteen, travelling from Damascus to Baalbek, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Nabulus, Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Hijaz, and elsewhere, after which he returned to Damascus.
Dhahabi learned from the following notable teachers that nclude; ibn Taymiyyah, ibn al Zahiri, Sharaf al Din al Dimyati, ibn Daqiq, Jamal al-Din Abu al-Ma`ali Muhammad, Al-Abarquhi.
Hafiz Dhahabi was a follower of Shafi'i Muhaddith.
He authored nearly a hundred works, some of them of considerable size:
- Tarikh al-Islam al-kabir. (Major History of Islam); Ibn Hajar received it from Abu Hurayra ibn al-Dhahabi.
- Siyar a`lam al-nubala'. (The Lives of Noble Figures), 23 volumes, a unique encyclopedia of biographical history.
- Tadhhib Tahdhib al-Kamal, an abridgement of al-Mizzi's abridgement of al-Maqdisee's Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal, a compendium of historical biographies for hadith narrators cited in the Six major Hadith collections.
- Al-Kashif fi Ma`rifa Man Lahu Riwaya fi al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Tadhhib.
- Al-Mujarrad fi Asma' Rijal al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Kashif.
- Al-Kashif fi Ma`rifa Man Lahu Riwaya fi al-Kutub al-Sitta, an abridgment of the Tadhhib.
- Mukhtasar Kitab al-Wahm wa al-Iham li Ibn al-Qattan.
- Mukhtasar Sunan al-Bayhaqi, an abridgement of Bayhaqi's Sunan al-Kubara.
- Mukhtasar al-Mustadrak li al-Hakim, an abdridgement of Hakim's Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain.
- Al-Amsar Dhawat al-Athar (Cities Rich in Historical Relics), which begins with the description of Madina al-Munawwara.
- Al-Tajrid fi Asma' al-Sahaba, a dictionary of the Companions.
- Tadhkirat al-huffaz. (The Memorial of the Hadith Masters), a chronological history of the biography of hadith masters. Ibn Hajar received it from Abu Hurayra ibn al-Dhahabi .
- Al-Mu`in fi Tabaqat al-Muhaddithin, a compendium of hadith scholars (Muhaddithin).
- Tabaqat al-Qurra (Biography-Layers of the Qur'anic Scholars).
- Duwal al-Islam, a condensed history with emphasis on political figures and events.
- Al-Kaba'ir (The Enormities)
- Manaaqib Al-imam Abu Hanifa wa saahibayhi Abu Yusuf wa Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan (The Honoured status of Imam Abu Hanifa and his two companions, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan)
Name Muhammad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abu Abdullah, alias Shamsuddin, father’s name Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub. He was born on 7 Safar al Muzzaffar, 691 H in Damuscus. His father was the attendant (qayyim) of a school in Jawziyyah, for the reason he is known as ibn Jawziyyah. He is a renowned ‘mufassir, jurist, astronomer, chemist, philosopher, psychologist, scientist and theologian.17- Hafiz ibn Qayyim al Jawziyyah ( 691 – 751 H)
Ibn Qayyim's teachers included his father, Abu Bakr, Shihaab al-'Abir, Taqiyyud-Deen Sulaymaan, Safiyyud-Deen al-Hindee, Ismaa'eel Ibn Muhammad al-Harraanee. However, the most notable of his teachers was Shaykhul-lslaam Ibn Taymiyyah, whom he accompanied and studied under for sixteen years.
Amongst his most prominent students were: Ibn Kathir (d. 774 H ), Al-Dhahabi (d. 748H ), Ibn Rajab (d. 795H ) and Ibn Abdul-Haadee (d. 744H ), as well as two of his sons, Ibraaheem and Sharafud-Deen Abdullaah.
Ibn Qayyim was a devout student, disciple and the successr of Imam Taimiyyah. He defended his religious opinions and approaches, and he compiled and edited most of his works, and taught the same. Ibn Qayyim like his teacher Imam Taimiyyah was a non-follower but his tilt was towards Hanbali ‘madhab’.
Because of their views, both the teacher and the student were persecuted, tortured by tyrannic rulers, and humiliated in public by the local authorities, as they were imprisoned in a single cell in the central prison of Damascus, known today as al-Qala.
When Ibn Taymiyyah died, Ibn Qayyim was freed and subsequently furthered his studies, holding study circles and classes. He taught Islamic Jurisprudence at al-Sadriyya school in Damascus, before he held the position of the Imam of the Jawziyyah school. Most of his writings were compilations, although he authored several books and manuscripts with his own handwriting which are preserved in the central Library of Damascus.
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah's contributions to the Islamic library are extensive, and they particularly deal with the Qur'anic commentaries, and understanding and analysis of the prophetic traditions (Fiqh-us Sunnah);
- Zad al-Ma'ad (Provision of the hereafter)
- Al-Waabil Sayyib minal kalim tayyib – a commentary on hadith about Prophet Yahya ibn Zakariyya.
- I'laam ul Muwaqqi'een 'an Rabb il 'Aalameen
- Tahthib Sunan Abi Da'ud
- Madaarij Saalikeen which is a rearrangement of the book by Shaikh Abu Ismail al-Ansari al-Harawi al-Sufi, Manazil-u Sa'ireen (Stations of the Seekers);
- Tafsir Mu'awwadhatain (Tafsir of Surah Falaq and Nas);
- Ad-Dā'i wa Dawā also known as Al Jawābul kāfi liman sa'ala 'an Dawā'i Shaafi
- Haadi Arwah ila biladil Afrah
- Uddat as-Sabirin wa Dhakhiratu ash-Shakirin
- Ighadatu lahfan fi masayid shaytan
- Rawdhatul Muhibbīn
- Ahkām ahl al-dhimma"
- Tuhfatul Mawdud bi Ahkam al-Mawlud
- Miftah Dar As-Sa'adah
- Jala al-afham fi fadhl salati ala khayral anam
- Al-Manar al-Munif
- Al-Tibb al-Nabawiya – a book on Prophetic Medicine (available in English as "The Prophetic Medicine" , printed by Dar al-Fikr in Beirut (Lebanon), or as "Healing with the Medicine of the Prophet (sal allahu `alayhi wa salim)" , printed by Darussalam Publications.
Name Imaduddin Ismail, father’s name Umar ibn Abu al Fida ibn Abi Hafs Umar. He was born in Majlal a suburb of Basra, Syria in 701 H. He was great muffasir, muhaddith, a faqih and a historian.18- Hafiz ibn Kathir ( 701 – 774 H)
He was a disciple of Ibn Taymiyya, Al-Mizzi, Ibn Al Firkah,‘Isa bin Al-Mutim, Ahmed bin Abi-Talib, Ibn Al-Hajjar, Baha Ad-Din Al-Qasim bin Muzaffar bin ‘Asakir, Ibn Ash-Shirazi, Ishaq bin Yahya Al-Ammuddi, Zahriyyah Shaykh, and Muhammad bin Zarrad.
Althouh he was a great admirer of Imam Taymiyya, ibn Kathir was a follower of Shaafii ‘madhab’.
In later life, he became blind . He attributes his blindness to working late at night on the Musnad of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in an attempt to rearrange it topically rather than by narrator. Ibn Kathir died in 774 H in Damascus.
Ibn Kathir’s work include; i) Tafsir ibn Kathir,ii) Stories of the Qur'an, iii)Al Bidayah wa-Nihayah or Tarikh ibn Kathir, iv) Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya, v) al-Baa'ith al-Hatheeth, vi) Tabaqaat ah-Shafi'iah, v) Talkhis al-Istighatha, vi) Signs Before the Day of Judgement, vii) Sins and their Punishments, viii) Stories of the Prophets
Tafsir ibn Kathir is the most renowned, trustworthy and reliable tafsir, ever recognized.
Name Zainuddin Abdur Rahman, Kunniyah (agnomen) Abu al Faraj, father’s name Ahmad ibn Abdur Rahman ibn al Hasan was born in Baghdad. His grand father was born in the month of Rajab, so he was named ibn Rajab.19- Hafiz ibn Rajab ( 744 – 795 H)
He moved to Damuscus at age 5 with his family. He traveled to Jerusalem, Egypt and Mecca.
Some of the scholars he studied under were ibn an-Naqeeb (d. 769H), as-Subki, al-Iraqi (d. 806H), and Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Khabbaz. He also studied with Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah up to ibn Qayyim's death. Ibn Rajab's commentary on the forty hadith of Nawawi (Jami' al-Ulum wa al-Hikam) is the largest as well as generally being considered the best commentary available. Near the end of his life, Ibn Rajab began composing a commentary on Sahih Bukhari, but unfortunately only reached the chapter on the funeral prayers before he died. He had named his work Fath al-Bari and what he did write has been published by Dar Ibn al-Jawzi in seven volumes. This amounts to less than a sixth of Sahih Bukhari. Twenty years after Ibn Rajab's death, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani began his commentary on Sahih Bukhari and gave his own work the same title in honour of Ibn Rajab.
Ibn Rajab died on a Monday night 4th of Ramadhan 795AH (1393), at the age of fifty-nine, in a garden area he had rented in Damascus. His funeral prayer was performed the next day and he was buried in the Baab as-Sagheer graveyard.
His contributions include tafaseer, books on ahadith, fiqh, history and other subjects;
Tafaseer: i) Tafsir Surah al-Ikhlaas, ii) Tafsir Surah al-Faatihah, iii) Tafsir Surah an-NasrI'raab, iv) al-BismillahAl-Istighnaa bil-Qur'an
Ahadith books: i)SharhJaami' al-Tirmidhi,ii) Sharh 'Ilal at-Tirmidhi , iii) Fath al-Bari bi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, iv) Jami' al-'Uloom wal-Hikam fi Sharh khamsina Hadithan min Jawami al-Kalim Maa Dhi'bani Ja'iaan ursilaa fi Ghanam, etc
Books on Fiqh: i) Al-Istikhraj fi Ahkam al-Kharaj, ii) Al-Qawa'id al-Fiqhiyyah,iii) Kitab Ahkam al-Khawatim wa ma yat'alaqu biha
20 – Hafiz ibn Hajr Asqalaani ( 773 – 852 H)
Name Ahmad, kunniyah (agnomen) Abul Fazal, alias Shahabuddin, father’s name ibn Ali ibn Hajr Asqalani. Asqalan was a very beautiful city of Palestine. He was born in Egypt on 23 Sha’aban 773 H.
His teachers include; Zainuddin Abdur Rahim Iraqi, Nooruddin Haithami, Sirajuddin Belqaini, ibn Jama’a, Ibrahim ibn Musa and so many others.
His disciples include; Hafiz Abdur Rahman Sakhavi, Burhanuddin Ibrahinm ibn Umar Baqa’ai, Ibn Fahad makki.
He remained Chief Justice for six times and the total duration of this Chief justiceship remained for 21 years. He was a follower of Shaafii ‘madhab’.
He died on 28 Dhul Hajja 852 H in Cairo (Egypt) at the age of 79 years.
Ibn Hajar authored more than fifty works on hadith, hadith terminology, biographical evaluation, history, Quranic exegesis , poetry and Shafi'i jurisprudence.
- Fath al-Bari al-Durar al-Kamina – a biographical dictionary of leading figures of the eighth century.
- Tahdhib al-Tahdhib Taqrib al-Tahdhib – the abridgement of Tahthib al-Tahthib.
- Ta'jil al-Manfa'ah
- al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba.
- Bulugh al-Maram min adillat al-ahkam Nata'ij al-Afkar fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Adhkar
- Lisan al-Mizan.
- Talkhis al-Habir fi Takhrij al-Rafi`i al-Kabir
- al-Diraya fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Hidaya
- Taghliq al-Ta`liq `ala Sahih al-Bukhari
- Risala Tadhkirat al-Athar
- al-Matalib al-`Aliya bi Zawa'id al-Masanid al-Thamaniya
- Nukhbat al-Fikar
- al-Nukat ala Kitab ibn al-Salah al-Qawl al-Musaddad fi Musnad Ahmad Silsilat al-Dhahab
- Ta`rif Ahl al-Taqdis bi Maratib al-Mawsufin bi al-Tadlis
21 – Hafiz Sakhavi ( 831 – 902 H)
Name Shamsuddin Muhammad Ibn Abdu Rahman Sakhavi, a great ‘muhaddith’ was born in 831 H. His teachers include; Hafiz ibn Hajr Asqalani Allama A’inee. He traveled through Hijaz, Cairi (Egypt) and then toMadina where he remained busy with teaching ‘deen’ (religion).
He wrote numerous books. Some of them are; Fatah al Mughees Sharah al fi al Hadith, al Dhu’ al Kalam la hil Qur’an al Tas’ae, Al e’alan bil tubikh zim al Tarikh etc.
22- Hafiz Suyuti ( 849 – 911 H)
Name Jalauddin, kunniyah (agnomen) Abul Fazal, father’s name Abi Bakr Suyuti Shafii, was born in Suyut a village at the bank of Nile in Cairo. In his childhood he was used to go to ibn Hajr Asqalani for education. He remained disciple of; Jalaluddin ibn Ahmad, Sharfuddin Yahya ibn Muhammad, Taqiuddin Ahmad ibn Muhammad Shamni, MuhiuddinMuhammad ibn Sulaiman, Saifuddin Muhammad ibn Muhammad. As-Suyuti traveled to Sham, Hijaz, Yemen, India and Morocco, and settled down towards the end of his life in his homeland of Egypt. Hafiz Suyuti has written in his book that he was benefited with 150 teachers and he named them.
The most famous of Al-Suyuti's students and it is possible to say the most outstanding student of As-Suyuti was the Imam, the historian, Al-Dawudi (died 945H) – author of the book Tabaqaat Al-Mufassireen and other works. Then there was his other student, the famous historian, Ibn Iyaas, author of the book Badaa'i-uz-Zuhoor (died 930H).
Some other of his students were the Imam, the Haafidh Ibn Tuloon Al-Hanafi (died 935H), author of the three Fahaaris, indexes as well as many other works and the Imam Al-Shi'raanee, author of the book Al-Tabaqaat (died 973H).
His books and treatises have been counted to number almost 500 works altogether. Suyuti listed 283 of his own works in Husn al-Muhađarah. Some of the more famous works he produced were:
i) Tafsir al-Jalalayn
ii) Al-Jaami' al-Kabîr
iii) Al-Jaami' al-Saghîr
iv) Dur al-Manthur
v) Alfiyyah al-Hadith
vi) Tadrib al-Rawi
vii) Al-Khulafah Ar-Rashidun
viii) Tabaqat al-huffaz
ix) Nuzhat al-julasā fī ashār al-nisā
Name Abdul Haq, father’s name Saifuddin ibn Sa’adullah Taraki. His great grand father Agha Muhammad Tarak was from Bukhara. After the fall of Baghdad, he migrated to Delhi along with some other Tarkish groups. Abdul Haq acquired his early education from his father. After that he went to Mecca and learned hadith and fiqh there, from great scholars of that time. After returning back to Delhi, he started teaching the religion. He successfully confronted the ‘Deen-e-Elahi’ established by Mughal Emperor Akbar. He wrote more than 60 books. The books relating to hadith are; Akhbar al Akhiyar, A’sa’h al Mu’at al Shrah al Mishkat, Muqaddama fi Asul al Hadith, and others.23 – Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehalvi (958 – 1052 H)
Name Ahmad, father’s name Abdur Rahim Umari. He famed by the name Shah Waliullah. His forefathers were descendants of Umar Farooq ra. That is why he was also called Umri. His early education was from his father and Shaikh Afzal Sialkoti. He went to Mecca where he learned from Abu Tahir Madni, Wafadullah Maliki, Tatuddin Qala’I and Umar ibn Ahmad Makki.After coming back to Delhi he taught the science of hadith there. He has over 60 books to his credit. The most famous and distinguished one is ‘Hajja tulllan al Baligha’. Others include; al Fawz al Kabir fi Usul al Tafsir, Kitam al Arba’in, Trajim al Bukhari, al Mustafa Sharah al Mawtta, Athar al Muhaddathin and other.24 – Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehalvi ( 1114 – 1176 H)
Name Muhammad, father’s name Ali ibn Abdullah was born on 28 Dhul Qaida 1173 H in Shukan a village near Sana’a, Yemen. His father was a great scholar and remained a jurist for 40 years.25 – Imam al Shaukani (1173 – 1250 H)
Al Shukani’s disciple include; Allama Muhammad ibn Nasr al Hazmi (d.1283 H), Allama Abdur Rahman ibn Sulaiman al Sadidee (d. 1250 H), Allama Abdur Rahman ibn Ahmad Al Bahkali (d. 1248 H), Allama Ahmad (his own son, d 1281 H).
Imam al Shukani wrote almost on all the fields of ‘deen’ (religion) including tafsir, hadith, fiqh, ilm al asnad, history and others. His most popular book is ‘Neel al A’utar’ , a commentary on the book ‘ Mantaqi al Akhbar’ of Imam Mujaddadin Abdus Salam ibn Taymiyyah.
Muhammad Nasiruddin was born in the city of Ashkodera, then the capital of Albania in the year1332 H. His father al-Haaj Nooh Najjaatee al-Albaanee had completed Sharee'ah studies in Istanbul and returned back to Albania. After Albania was taken over by secularist Ahmet Zogu, his family migrated to Damascus. In Damascus Albaanee completed his initial education and was then taught the Qur’an, Tajweed, sciences of Arabic language, fiqh and further branches of the Deen by various teachers and friends of his father.26 - Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee (1332 – 1420 H)
He also learnt from his father the art of clock and watch repair - and became highly skilled in that and famous for it and derived his earnings through it. He began to specialise in the field of Hadeeth and its related sciences by the age of 20 - being influenced by articles in 'al-Manaar' magazine.He delved further into the field of Hadeeth and its various sciences.
Albaanee’s teachers and mentors include; Bahjatul Bayjaar, Abdul-Fattaah, and Towfeeq al-Barzah. After a number of his works appeared in print Albaanee was chosen to teach Hadeeth in the new University in Madeenah, Saudi Arabia, for three years from 1381 to 1383 H where he was also a member of the University board.
His students are many and include amongst them: Hamdee 'Abdul-Majeed, Muhammad 'Eed 'Abbaasee, Dr. 'Umar Sulaymaan al-Ashqar, Muhammad lbraheem Shaqrah, Muqbil ibn Haadee al-Waadi'ee, 'Alee Khushshaan, Muhammad Jameel Zaynoo, 'Abdur-Rahmaan Abdus-Samad, 'Alee Hasan 'Abdul-Hameed al-Halabee, and Saleem al-Hilaalee.
He authored more than 30 books, few of them are:
- Sahih wa Da'if Sunan Abu Dawood (Volumes 1–4)
- Sahih wa Da'if Sunan at-Tirmidhi (Volumes 1–4)
- Sahih wa Da'if Sunan ibn Majah (Volumes 1–4)
- Silsalat al-Hadith ad-Da'ifa (Volumes 1–14)
- Silsalat al-Hadith as-Sahiha (Volumes 1–11)
Apart from his life history, following are his achievements:
1. He was selected by the Faculty of Sharee’ah in the University of Damascus to make Takhreej of the Ahaadeeth of transactions that were specifically collected by the University and published in 1955.
2. He was selected to be a member of the Committee of Hadeeth that was founded during the union between Egypt and Syria. It was tasked to oversee the publication and editing of the books of the Sunnah.
3. He was requested by the Salafee University in Banaris, India, to be responsible of the affairs of Hadeeth. He excused himself from the position due to the difficulty of taking his family there during the time of war between India and Pakistan.
4. In 1388 H. Shaykh Hassan ibn ‘Abdullaah Aal ash Shaykh requested that he assume the position of supervisor for higher education in the faculty of Islaamic studies in the University of Makkah, he was unable to take up the position.
5. He was selected to be a member of the Higher Committee in the Islaamic University of Madeenah from 1395 – 1398 H. He also lectured at the University.
6. He accepted the request of the noble Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Azeez ibn Baaz, may Allaah have mercy upon him, to travel to Egypt, Morocco and Britain to call to Tawheed and the adherence to the Qur-aan and Sunnah with the correct Islaamic methodology.
7. He received the National King Faisal prize for Islaamic Studies in 1419 H. for ‘Efforts on the knowledge of Prophetic Hadeeth’
Albaanee died at the age of 87 years on 22 Jumaadaa ath-Thaaniyah 1420 H (2 October, 1999)
Ehsaan Ilahi Zaheer, father’s name Zahur Ilahi ibn Ahmaduddin ibn Nadham was born in Sialkot a city of Pakistan. According to his brother – Dr. Fazal Ilahi – he was born in 1940, but Allama while interviewing a magazine, titled ‘ Mujallat ul Arabiyyah’, said that he was born on 31 May, 1945 (18 Jamadi al Awwal, 1364 H). He belonged to a cloth trading family. Allama’s father, while knowing the importance of education and knowledge, spent all his effort and wealth for the education of his children.27 - Allama Ehsaan Ilahi Zaheer (1364 - 1407 H)
Allama, after acquiring sufficient knowledge in Pakistan, moved to Saudi Arabia, where he completed the full length of his studies at the Islamic University of Madinah. He had the privilege to gain knowledge there from great scholars like; Shaikh Abdul Azeez bin Baz, Allama Nasiruddin Albani, Muhammad Hammad al Ansari, Muhammad Ibraim al-Jundalvi, Muhammad al Ameen ash Shinqiti, Abu Bakr al Jaza’ivi and others. Allama was great scholar of hadith. He established the editorial ‘Tarjumaam al Hadith’.
Allama very vehemently confronted ‘Qadianiat’, Shiaism and ‘Brevilism as a result he was several times threatened to death. At one occasion Iran’s Khomeini said,” whosoever brings me the head of Ehsaan Ilahi Zaheer, will be rewarded with $ 200,000/-“.
On March 23, 1987 (29 Rajab 1407 H) when Allama was addressing a ‘Seerah Meeting’, a bomb was blasted at the stage, where he was critically wounded and a number of his companions were martyred. He was shifted to Ryadh Hospital, Saudi Arabia for further medical treatment, where he succumbed to his injuries and died on March 30, 1987. Shaikh Abdul Azeez bin Baz, the grand ‘Mufti’ of Saudi Arabia led his funeral prayers. He was buried next to the grave of Malik ibn Anas in the ‘Baqie’ graveyard.
P.S: Pointing out of any discrepancy or misstatement will be highly appreciated and acknowledged.
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