Style and types of ahadith books
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Style and types of ahadith books
Style and types of ahadith books
by M. Rashid Hai
During the early period of hadith compilations nothing specific regarding subject, order or arrangement was into consideration. However with the passage of time ahadith were compiled on different patterns and different styles. Depending upon these patterns and styles of arrangements, the ahadith books are classified into different categories.Style and Types of ahadith books
Some of the well known categories are as follows;PART Ė A (Well known categories.)
1 - Al-Sahih:
These are the books that contains ahadith, which on their personal judgment and criterion of the compilers, as Ďsahihí. However, there exist probabilities that some of the ahadith in such books may not have been judged Ďsahihí by other compilers. Few of such books are;
i) Sahih al-Bukhari, ii) Sahih Muslim, iii) Sahih ibn Khuzaima, iv) Sahih ibn Habban, v) Kitab al ilzamat by Abul Hasan Ali ibn Umar Dar Qutni, and others.
2 - Al- Jamaíe:
These are the books in which ahadith cover the following eight subjects viz., 1) Siyar, plural of Sirah Ė the complete biography of Prophet Muhammad sws, 2) Adab, plural of Ďadabí Ė the etiquettes, 3) Tafsir Ė the exegesis of Qurían, 4) Aqaíed Ė the believes, 5) Fitn, plural of Ďfitnaí Ė sedition, discord, 6) Ishraat Ė the signs of day of judgment, 7) Ahkam, plural of Ďhukmí Ė laws of Ďshareeahí, and 8) Manaqib, plural of Manqabt Ė the fine qualities of the Prophet sws, his Ďsahaabaí (companions) and his tribe.
The following books of ahadith fall in this category; i) Jamaíe al Bukhari, ii) Jamaíe Muslim, iii) Jamaíe al Tirmidhi, iv) Jamaíe Sufyan ibn Saeed ibn Masrooq al Kufi, and others.
The books Jamaíe al Bukhari and Jamaíe Muslim are also termed as al Sahih.
3 - Al Sunnan:
In these books the ahadith are compiled subject wise, and the subject matters are arranged under the sections of law of books. These sections, initially were called Ďabwaab, then they were termed as Ďmusannafí and at present these are called Ďsunnaní. Following are some famous Ďal sunnaní books; i) Sunnan ibn Jareeh, by abul Waleed Abdul Malik ibn Abdul Aziz Rumi (d.151 H), ii) Sunnan Saeed ibn Mansoor (d. 227 H), iii) Sunnan abi Jafar, by Muhammad ibn al Sabah Dawalbi (d. 227 H), iv) Sunnan al Imam al Shafaii (d. 204 H), v) Sunnan al Daarmi (d. 255 H), vi) Sunnan al Tirmidhi (d. 279 H), vii) Sunnan ibn Majaa (d. 275 H),viii) Sunnan abi Dawood (d. 275 H), ix) Sunnan al Sughra by Ibn Shoib Nisaii (d. 303 H), x) Sunnan dar al Qatni (d. 385 H), xi) Sunnan Ani Bakr Ahmad ibn Suliman Najjar (d. 348 H), xii) Sunnan abi Qasim (d. 418 H), xiii) Sunnan al Kubra by Ibn al Hussain Bayhaqi (d. 458 H), xiv) Sunnan al Sughra by Ibn al Hussain Bayhaqi.
4 - Al Musnad:
These are the books in which ahadith are arranged according to the names of the ĎSahaabaí. Meaning that all the ahadith narrated by a particular ĎSahaabií are compiled at one place, no matter what subject any hadith deal with. The criterion of selection of ĎSahaabií is either based upon seniority i.e. who embraced Islam first, or on alphabetical order. Some times Sunnan are compiled on the bases of cities or regions.
Some of the Ďmasaneedí based upon the names of Ďsahaabaí are; i) Munad abi Dawood a; Tyalsee (d. 204 H), ii) Musnad abi Ishaq al Jawhari (d. 244 H), acollection of ahadith from Abu Bakr Siddiq ra , and others.
Some of the Ďmasaneedí referring to the three Imams are; i) Munad al Imam Abu Hanifa, ii) Musnad al Shaafii, iii) Musnad Ahmad.
5- Al Mawata:
Such book contains ahadith of Prophet sws , the narrations of ĎSahaabaí, fatawa (rulings) of ĎTabiiní and sayings of the writer himself. Such books are; i) Mawatta al Imam Malik by Malik ibn Anas (d.179 H), ii) al Mawatta by Muhammad ibn Abdur Rahman bin Abi Zaíib (d. 158 H), iii) Mawatta Ubdaan by Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Musa Maruzi (d. 293 H)
6 Ė Al Musannaf:
Such book contains ahadith of Prophet sws , the narrations of ĎSahaabaí, and fatawa (rulings) of ĎTabiiní. It does not contain the sayings of the writer but includes a great number of narrations of ĎSahaabaí. There is no much difference between Sunnan, Mawatta and Musannaf.
7- Al Muíjam:
According to Shaikul Hadith Muhammad Zakaria, Ďmuíjamí is that book of hadith in which the alphabetical order is maintained for the narrators no matter they are Ďsahaabaí or the teachers of the compilers. It means Ďmuíjamí is very close to Ďmusnadí.
Some of the known Ďmuíajamí are; i) Al Muíjam as Saghir by Imam Tabarani, in which he has selected one hadith each from his teachers. ii) Muíjam al Sahaaba by Abu Muhammad Hussain ibn Masud Baghwi (d. 516 H), iii) Muíjum al Sahaaba by ibn Qanaíe (d. 351 H) and others.
8 - Al Mustadrak:
It is that book in which those ahadith are compiled which were gathered by others but they could not include these in their books, although these ahadith were at par with the criterion set by them. Mustadarakat have been written for ĎSahihainí (Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim); these include; i) Kitab al ilzamat by Ali ibn Umar ibn Ahmad Dar Qatni ( d. 385 H), In this book Dar Qatni compiled those ahadith which fulfilled the criterion set by Imam Bukhari and Muslim but were included in their ĎSahihainí.This book is also based upon the principle of ĎMusnadí. ii) al Mustadrak ela as Sahihain by Hafiz abu Zar Harvi (d. 434 H), iii) al Mustadrak as Sahihain by Abu Abdullah al Hakim Nishapuri (d. 405 H).
9 - Al Mustakhraj:
In such books those ahadith have been compiled which are taken by other books without mentioning the names of those compilers. Following are some examples;
Mustakharajat on Sahih Bukhari: i) Al Mustakhraj by Abi Bakr Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Ismaili (d. 371 H), ii) Mustakhraj al Ghatrifi by Hafiz abu Ahmad ibn Abu Hamid Ghatrifi 9d. 377 H).
Mustakharajat on Sahih Muslim: i) Mustakhraj Abi Muhammad at Tusu (d. 339 H), ii) Mustakhraj Abi Saeed Nishapuri (d. 353 H).
Mustakharajat on Sahihain: i) Mustakhraj Abi Naeem by Abu Naeem Ahmad ibn Abdullah (d. 430 H), ii) Mustakhraj Abi Bakr al Burqani (d. 425 H)
10 Ė Al Juzz:
In these books ahadith on a particular subject are compiled. These books include; i) Juzz al Qiraíat Khalf al Imam by Imam Bukhari, ii) Juzz Hajjah al Widaa by Shaikh Muhammad Zakaria (d. 1403 H)
11 Ė Al Arbaíin:
In such books 40 ahadith are compiled either on one subject or different. In fact the objective to write such books was to follow a hadith related by Imam Bayhaqi, in which Abul Dardía narrated that while answering to a question; how much Ďilmí (knowledge) is acquired to become a Ďfaqihí ( jurisprudent),the Prophet Muhammad sws said, that whoever amongst my Ďummahí remembers 40 of my ahadith that relates to Ďdeení (religion), he will be raised on the day of resurrection as a Ďfaqihí, and I sws will be his witness and Ďshaafeí (recommender). (Mishkaat, Kitab al Ilm, 240/10)
The first ĎArbaiíní was written by Abdullah ibn Mubarek. Imam Dar Qatni, Imam Hakim, Abu Naeem, Abu Abdur Rahman Salma, Abu Bakr Bayhaqi and Imam Nawwai also compiled ĎArbaiíní.
12 Ė Al Mawdu:
These are books in which fabricated or concocted narrations are compiled. Such books include; i) Al Mawduaat al Kubra by Ibn Jawzi, ii) Al Minar al Munif fi al Sahih wa al Daíif by Ibn Qayyam, iii) Al Mawduaat al Kubra by Mulla Ali Qari, iv) Silsila al Ahadith al Daíifa by Allama Nasiruddin Albaani.
PART Ė B ( Other categories)
13 Ė Al Ahkaam:
These books contains ahadith selected from the most reliable books and are related to Ďahkamí (laws of Ďshareeahí and Ďfiqhí. ĎBalugh al Maraam min Adl al Ahkaamí by Hafiz ibn Hajr is a good example of it. Such books also fall in the category of ĎSunnaní.
14 Ė Al Mashikha:
In such books ahadith related to one particular Shaikh are compiled, for example Mashikha al Hafiz Abi Yaala al Khalilee (d. 446 H)
15 Ė Al Mujjared:
Such books contains those ahadith from one of the reliable books but repetition of Ďisnadí and Ďmataní are omitted and is only referred to narrating Ďsahaabií. For example ĎTajreed al Sahihainí by Imam Qartabi.
16 Ė Al Takhreej:
In these books such ahadith which were without Ďisnadí in other books, are compiled with relevant Ďisnadí. For example Ď Talkhis al Hubair fi Takhrij Ahadith al Rafaíe al Kabeer by Hafiz ibn Hajar.
17 Ė Al Jamaía:
Such books contains those ahadith from different reliable books but repetition of Ďisnadí is omitted, like ĎAl Jamaía bain al Sahihan by Imam Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abu Nasr Hameedi (d. 488 H), Jamaía al Jawamaíe by Allama Jajaluddin Sauti (d. 911 H)
18- Al Fahris:
Such books have compilations of the Ďfahrisí (list) of all the ahadith books, so that any hadth may be located easily. For example ĎMiftah Sahih al Bukhari and Miftah Sahih Muslim both by Muhammad ibn Mustafa Tauqadi.
19 Ė Al Itraaf:
In these books hadith are collected by their first or last lwords, so that a particular hadith may be recognized. Such books are very helpful to relocate a semi-forgettable hadith. Itraaf al Sahihain by Abu Masud Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Damishiqi (d. 401 H)
20 Ė Al Mushtehara:
In these books such ahadith are collected which are Ďmashoorí (well circulated) but their Ďisnadí is generally not known. For example; i) Al Durr al Muntashra fi al Ahadith al Mushtehara by Allama Jalaluddin Sauti, ii) Al Laía li al Manshura fi al Ahadith al Mashhura by Hafiz ibn Hajar.
21 Ė Asbaab al Hadith:
Ahadith, along with details that how, when and under what circumstances these were narrated by Prophet sws, are compiled in such books. For example al Lamaía fi Asbaab al Hadith by Hafiz Jalaluddin Sauti.
22 Ė Al Zawwaid:
In these books all those ahadith, which are collected from all other books but are not in ĎSahihainí ( Sahih al Bukhar, Sahih Muslim). For example Majmaíe al Zawwaid wa Munbaíe al Fawaid by Allama Nooruddin Haithmi (d. 807 H)
23 Ė Al Illal:
In such books those ahadith are compiled which have question marks on Ďisnadí and incoherence in their Ďmataní. Kitab al Illal by Imam Bukari, Kitab al Illal al Kabeer by Imam Tirmidhi are good examples.
24 Ė Sharh al Hadith:
These are the books which are commentaries on hadith books. For example Fath al Bari by Hafiz ibn Hajar is a commentary on Sahih al Bukhari.
25 Ė Al Azkaar:
In such books all those ahadith relating to supplications are compiled. For example Kitab al Azkaar by Imam Nawwi, Al Hasan al Husain by Allama al Jazri or al Kalam al Tayyab by Imam Taimyyah.
26 Ė Al Musalsalat:
In these books those ahadith are collected in which all the narrators have a common characteristic, e.g. all the narrators are Ďfaqihí or Ďmuhaddithí or they use to perform same actions while narrating ahadith. For example; Al Azb al Silsal fi al Hadith al Musalsal by Hafiz Shamsuddin Dhahabi (d. 748 H), Al fazal al Mubin fi al Misalsal min Hadith al Nabi al Ameen by Shah Waliullah Dehalvi (d. 1176 H)
27 Ė Al Targheeb wa Al Tarheeb:
These books include those ahadith that relate to alluring and persuasion towards Ďdeení. Al Targheeb wa al Tarheeb by zakiuddin Abdul Azeem ibn Munzaree (d. 656 H) is one of the examples of such books.
28 Ė Ghareeb al Hadith:
These are books in which all the words in a hadith are explained by providing their literal and tradional meanings. For example; Ghareeb al Hadith by Abul Farj ibn Jawzi (d. 597 H).
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