Discussion in 'Islamic Law' started by Ibn Jafar, Mar 23, 2012.
by Moulana Muhammad Karolia
One of the concerns of power is to inspect the conditions of matters and handle public affairs. This requires traveling throughout the countries, meeting people, commanding the army in times of Jihad (striving in the Cause of Allah), confronting enemies in concluding treaties and agreements, making pledges of allegiance with members and groups of the Ummah (nation based on one creed), men and women, in war and peace, in addition to other acts that neither coincide with a woman's status nor with the rulings that were prescribed to protect her honor and keep her away from immorality.
The Ummah in the time of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the Imams of the early best three centuries practically agreed upon not assigning any power or judicial authority to women, despite the fact that they had well-educated women in various disciplines of religion. There were women who were references and authorities in the Sciences of Qur'an, Hadith and rulings; yet they did not even think of assuming any power or office.
We also have examples from the past before this Ummah; one of which is the story of Bilqis (the Queen of Saba [or Sheba] in Yemen, who ruled during the lifetime of Prophet Sulayman. She and her people were sun worshippers) who reigned over Yemen. She was helpless and broke down after she received the letter of prophet Sulayman (Solomon, peace be upon him), even though her people had shown power and strength, andwere willing to fight against whoever thought of showing them enmity or invading their country, to protect her and her reign, and to throw back any attack by their enemies. However, this did not ward off her fears of loosing her reign, glory, and power. She failed to strive and protect her crown and ward off any transgression by the force of arms, preferring to send a gift to Sulayman, hoping that he might retreat from attacking her country and achieve peace to her reign and country. However, prophet Sulayman (peace be upon him), the man of reformation, guidance, power and might, was not deceived by this gift.
Accordingly, you can conclude from this story how afraid Bilqis was when she received the letter of Sulayman that included threats, warnings, and a command to surrender. You can also see how she failed to confront him in battle, even though her people had declared having great strength and power. Given that kings and queens are often characterized by pride, exaltedness and a tendency to protect and keep their reign, she resorted to trickery by means of money, acting like weak people, hoping to protect herself and her reign in this way. Apart from this, there was also astonishment that led her to be uncertain about her throne, and her full admiration for the reign of Sulayman (peace be upon him), which captured her heart like all other women who tend to be influenced by external appearances because of their strong passion. This drove her to surrender to Sulayman (peace be upon him), follow his Da`wah (call to Allah), and submit with him to Allah, the Lord of all Worlds.
May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
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