By Abuz-Zubair al-Azzami on Thursday, September 07, 2000 - 08:31 pm: Edit By Abuz-Zubair al-'Azzami on Sunday, June 11, 2000 - 06:58 pm: as-Salaamu 'Alaikum wa-raHmatullah It was indeed a beneficial piece of article regarding the understanding of Imaan with the Salaf. However, I would like to repeat what the author said and add more to that Inshaa`Allah... Imaan as understoond according to the Salaf is: 1) Inward statements (to believe in the articles of faith) 2) Outward statements (to utter the testimony with the tongue and so on) 3) Inward actions (to love, fear, hate, reliance and so on) 4) Outward actions (to make Salaah and Hajj, to fast and to give Zakaah etc.) Therefore one must have the required amount of ALL these four components in order for him to have Iman enough to save him from the fire of Hell. Kufr on the other hand is the exact opposite of Iman and it also exists in these four categories. Therefore a person may become a Kafir either in: 1) Inward statements (e.g. disbelieving in those articles of faith agreed upon or believing in Taaghoot like horoscopes and so on). 2) Outward statements (e.g. by refusing to utter the testimony of Iman or by insulting Allah or His Messenger(s) and so on) 3) Inward actions (e.g. by hating Allah or what He has sent down via His Messenger or by loving someone (thing) above or equal to Allah and so on) 4) Outward actions (e.g. by practicing magic, throwing the Qur'an, requesting the dead to make du'a to Allah for a need, making Sujood to someone other than Allah, abandoning Salaah in its totality or replacing the Sharee'ah of Allah with secularism). Therefore it must be understood that the division of Kufr in belief and Kufr in actions is not to be taken in absolute sense as there are many actions that take a person outside the fold of Islam. With that it must be mentioned that the roots of outward statements and actions, are the inward statements and actions. So for example, no one insults Allah and His Messenger (which is an outward action/statement) except that he/she already hates Allah and His Messenger inwardly (which is an inward action). Similarly, no one replaces the Sharee'ah of Islam in its totality with secular laws (which is an outward action) except that he/she hates or thinks low of the Sharee'ah of Allah or finds t inappropraite in our time (which is an inward statement). This is exactly what Sheikh Ibn al-'Uthaimeen has said in his work Sharh Thalaathah al-Usool (Translated by Dawud Ibn Ronal Burbank): "... this person who is laying down a system of laws contrary to Islaam only lays it down due to his belief that it is better than Islaam and more beneficial for the servants..." (p. 254). Therefore those rulers who have replaced the sharee'ah of Allah with other systems have fallen into Major Kufr (not that they are Kuffaar) even if they acknowledge their wrong doing and state openly that they desire nothing but the Sharee'ah of Allah. As this is clear from the statement of Sh. Muhammad Ibn Ibraahim Raheemahullah when he said: "... and as for the one for whom it is said Kufr doon Kufr (Kufr of a lesser degree), if he rules according to other than Allah with the belief that he is disobeying and that the ruling of Allah is true, then this occurs from him once or more. As for the one who makes rules with organisation and subjection then this is Kufr, even if they say we are mistaken and the ruling of the Shar' is more just" (Fataawaa Muhammad bin Ibraahim 12/280).