'Umdat al-Fiqh with Abuz Zubair

Discussion in 'Hanbali School' started by Expergefactionist, Jul 23, 2004.

  1. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    As-Salaamu 'Alaikum and welcome to our Online Fiqh lessons.

    As you all probably know that the book to be studied in this course is the famous Fiqh manual of the Hanbali Fiqh called 'Umdat al-Fiqh. In order for your participation to be thorough, you are all advised to obtain a copy of this manual, which is widely available in Islamic-Arabic bookshops. This manual is most commonly available with its best explanation to-date, called al-'Uddah Sharh al-'Umdah by Baha' al-Din al-Maqdisi. One of the best prints you can buy is 'Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi' print (available in Dar al-Dawah bookshop in Bayswater), or Mu'assasat al-Risalah print (not available in the UK to my knowledge). There are other not-so-good prints around, which will do the job if you cannot travel to Bayswater. Alternatively, you can access the book online, copy and paste it into your own word document and make your own notes therein. You may find this manual online at the following link:
    http://www.islamweb.net/php/php_arabic/Book.php?lang=A&BookId=505&CatId=214

    The purpose of these lessons is to understand the text of this manual from the beginning till the end, in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding and basic knowledge of Shari'ah. These are not comparative-Fiqh lessons, nor Fatwa sessions, simply because none of us here are qualified delve into comparative Fiqh, nor qualified to issue verdicts on Allah's behalf. These lessons are only our humble effort to learn the Hanbali Fiqh.

    The way we will conduct these lessons, is that I will paste a passage from the manual in Arabic, translate it into English, and then give a very simple explanation to the text, such that it becomes easier for a student to understand and absorb the intended meaning. No doubt, it would be an advantage to have someone who possesses good understanding of Arabic and English to improve my translation during the course of these lessons.

    May Allah purify our intentions, reward us for our efforts, and make what we learn a proof for us and not against us, Ameen.

    Abuz-Zubair
     
  2. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    'Umdat al-Fiqh [What Do We Know About Imam Ahmad?]

    As-Salaamu 'Alaikum,

    Since we are studying the Hanbali Madhab, it is appropriate that we start by learning, and sharing what we already know about the 'founder' of this Madhab, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, his early life, his education, his teachers, his students, his trial, and his death; along with other historical facts about the growth, development, spread of the Madhab.

    However, instead of me writing something up, and in order to make our lessons more interactive, I suggest that we ask YOU to write what you know about this man… Ahmad ibn Hanbal. It could be anything you know, or heard, so long as it is in your own words and not a cut-and-paste job!

    So what do you know about Ahmad ibn Hanbal?

    wasalam
     
  3. Abu Ilyas

    Abu Ilyas New Member

    As Salaamualaiakum

    Imaam Ahmad was based in Iraaq. He was a contemporary of Imaam ash Shafiie, though Junior to him , studied under him ???so he lived in the period of the Abbasid Khilafah.

    Imaam Ahmad (RH) compiled a HUGE collection of hadeeth, I think something like 30,000 hadeeth in his compilation which is called 'al Musnad'. Also, Imaam Bukhaari took hadeeth directly from Imaam Ahmad I beleive when Bukhaari travelled to Iraaq.

    Imaam Ahmad was imprisoned and severely beaten and tortured during an Inquisition for not polluting his Aqueeda by accepting the Philosophical/Mutazili Position on the creation of the Qur'an. Imaam Ahmad stood firm against all this torture and never changed his belief, May Allah have Mercy upon Him.

    Thats all. I would like to hear more historical stuff on him please!!

    Was Salaam
     
  4. ummzahraa

    ummzahraa New Member

    more details please

    Asalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi

    Jazakum allahu kheir for providing such a service, may Allah purify our intentions, accept our good deeds and forgive us for our bad deeds. Ameen

    I have a few questions, we knoe how this course is going to run but when ? is there a time tiable when you will post the lessons i.e every xxx day? how long is this course? How is this going to work, do we read and understand and contribute with our comments if we have any or what?

    Jazakum allahu kheir and may He make your tasks easy for you. Ameen

    :?: :?:
     
  5. Abiumar

    Abiumar New Member

    He was a Haafidh who had memorised more than a 100 thousand hadeeth, and he by the permission of Allah saved this Deen from being deviated and having ingrain the false belief in the Muslims minds that the Qur'aan is created.

    By Allah the Qur'aan is not created, indeed it is the speech of Allah.
     
  6. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    JazaakumAllahu Khairan Abu Ilyas and Abu Umar,

    As Abu Ilyas said, he was not only a contemporary to Imam al-Shafi'i, he was in fact one of his beloved students. It is commonly known amongst Shafi'is that when Imam al-Shafi'i said: حدثني ثقة (a reliable sourse narrated to me), intending by that Imam Ahmad. He would say to Imam Ahmad: Tell us of a Hadeeth which is authentic and we would act on it.

    Imam Ahmad would likewise have much respect for him. On one occasion, Imam Ahmad was sitting with either Ishaq ibn Rahwaih or 'Ali ibn al-Madini, and he saw Imam al-Shafi'i pass by them riding a donkey. So Imam Ahmad began to follow al-Shafi'i behind his donkey asking him about Fiqh issues. He then came back to his companion (either Ishaq or Ali), and the companion said: Why were you following asl-Shafi'i like that in a degrading manner? Imam Ahmad replied: This is how knowledge is sought!

    It is interesting that brother Abu Ilyas brought up the relationship between Shafi'i and Ahmad, because the Madhabs of these two are strikingly similarly to each other.

    As mentioned, Imam Ahmad is also the compiler of biggest Musnad, which he collected after travelling the entire Muslim world. This book is a testimony to Imam Ahmad's memory. Imam Ahmad would often play with his son Salih, by the latter throwing a chain of narration, or a text of a Hadeeth at Imam Ahmad, which he would then complete - all from his memory.

    Apart from the great Hafidh, he was also an Imam of Jarh and Ta'deel (the science of critism and strengthening of Hadeeth narrators). He is regarded to be from the balanced Imams who would neither be harsh in their critism nor lenient.

    Of course, there is not a briographer on Imam Ahmad except that he mentions the trial that this Imam went through in order to safeguard our creed. The story is very long and moving, but in short, when the Mu'tazilites (the rationalists) managed to establish their influence in the office of Khalif Ma'mun, the latter instigated an inquisition by examing the beliefs of all scholars and forcing them to confess that the Quran is not the speech of Allah. Rather Allah created this speech, the way he created the entire creation. Many senior scholars of his time were forced into this belief, some of these scholars were even killed, while others were imprisoned, and from them Imam Ahmad. This Imam lived and survived this great trial with much pain by witnessing many of the senior scholars of his time, as well as his close companions giving into the demands of the ruler and not remaining patient and speaking the truth. Fortunately, this episode left a great impression on the Hanbalis to come, so much so, that Hanbalis became known through out Islamic history, as the strickest of people in adherence to the Sunnah in beliefs and actions and the sternest of all people against Bid'ah; and the two classic examples of such Hanbalis, would undoubtedly be Ibn Taymiyah and Muhammad ibn 'Abdil-Wahhab.

    So far so good, but a bit disappointing to see only 2 out of about 20 something people posting! We want mass participation people!! So tell us, when was he born? Where? When did he start his education? Under who? When did he start giving Fatwas? When did he die? How was his funeral? Who were his companions? How was his Madhab narrated and compiled?

    All these questions need answers :)

    wasalam
     
  7. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    It really depends how actively people participate in these lessons. If people post on a daily basis and contribute to these lessons, then no doubt this will make these lessons more frequent, interactive and more interesting. Likewise, a slow response and lethargic participation will obviously make these lessons less frequent.

    wasalam
     
  8. Safeenah

    Safeenah New Member

    - Ahmad ibn Hanbal was born in the city of Baghdad in the year 780 CE (164 AH).

    -He died in Baghdad in the year 855 CE (241 AH).
     
  9. Unspecified

    Unspecified New Member

    I know that Imam Ahmads mum used to wake him up very early, before Fajr and take him to the mosque.

    And when he was being taken (?) to be questioned about his stance on the Qur'an - there were loads of people outside waiting to write down what he would say... so he said how could be mislead all those people...

    There is nothing more I know that what has already been said...

    Oh, and there is this really nice statement of his - something along the lines of as long as he had his faith, then everythings ok (sorry, vague - but i can go and find it...)
     
  10. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    'Umdat al-Fiqh [What Do We Know About Ibn Qudaamah and his book al-'Umdat]

    Apart from Imam Ahmad, it is also appropriate for us to find out about Ibn Qudaamah, and his works, in particular 'Umdat al-Fiqh, which we will be studying in these lessons.

    Please share with us what you know about the author, his works, and amongst them, his book that are going to study!

    wasalam
     
  11. Sabr Wa Shukr

    Sabr Wa Shukr Umm Yellow

    Asalaamu'alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatauh

    His full name is Shaykh Islaam Abu Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Hanbal.
    ~ Born in the year 164 after the Prophetic hijrah.
    ~ Begun seeking knowledge at the age of 15.
    ~He traveled extensively acquiring and learning ahadîth from over two-hundred and eighty teachers
    ~ Those who narrated from him include - Muslim Abu Dawood, his sons - Salih and abdullaah ibn ahmad, and Al Bukhari (only a single hadith)
    ~Student of Imaam Shafee
    ~ He was imprisoned in ramadan of the year of 219H
    ~he attended the circles of Qadi Abu Yusuf (the student of Abu Hanifah) - rahimahullah
    ~He began to study Hadith at the age of thirteen - having already memorised the Qur'aan at a young age.
    ~He underwent severe torture and trial due to defending the correct aqeedah - the aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaah (the Prophet sallallahu ’alayhi wa sallam, his Companions and those who followed them in aqeedah and manhaj)
    ~ Imaam Hanbal passed away on the day of jummah, the 12th night of rabeul awaal in the year 241H.

    :::: Imaam ash-Shafee - rahimahullah - said:
    “I left Baghdad and I did not leave behind me a man better, having more knowledge, or greater Fiqh (understanding), nor having greater taqwa (piety) than Ahmad ibn Hanbal.”


    Wa'alaykumassalaam Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatauh

    ~ Sabr Wa Shukr
     
  12. Abu Ilyas

    Abu Ilyas New Member

    As Salaamualaikum

    Ibn Qudaamah Al Maqdisi (Muwaffaq ud deen) was born in Palestine and moved to Damascus when he was 10.He later travelled to Iraaq to further his education and soon become the main Scholar of the Hanbalis in his time. He was bon in 541 H and died in 620H.

    Shaykh ul Islaam, Ibn Taiymiyah said about him, "No one possessing more understanding of the religon entered Shaam, after Al-Awzaa'ee, other than Shaykh al Muwaffaq"

    Ibn Katheer said about him , "He was the Shaykh l Islaam, an Imaam, a Scholar, outstandingly proficient. there was not found in his time nor before it by a long span of time, anyone possessing more Fiqh than him."

    He authored a great many books. In fiqh he wrote the famous compendium of Fiqh (perhaps the greatest fiqh book ever compiled ??) 'al mughnee' aswell as other Fiqh books including Al Umdah.

    He also wrote on Aqueedah, Usool, Hadeeth e.t.c

    Ibn Rajab al Hanbali said about his books "He generated benefit to all the Muslims on a general level, and to the scholars of the (Hanbali) Madhab on a specific level. These books spread widely and grew very popular, according to the nobility of his intention and sincereity when writing them."

    It is also noteworthy that Ibn Qudamah al Maqdisi lived at the time of the Crusades and was Invoved in the Jihad against the crusaders and made Jihad alongside the famous Salaah ud Deen al Ayoobi.

    Was Salaam
     
  13. Umm Julaybib

    Umm Julaybib New Member

    Assalaamu'alaikoum Warahmatullah Wabarakaatuh

    -Imam Ahmad Never gave a fatwa while Imam Sha'fi was in Iraq.
    -When he died in 241H his funeral procession consisted of eight hundred thousand men and sixty thousand women.

    Abu Dawud said of him: ‘Ahmad’s gatherings were gatherings of the afterlife: nothing of this world was mentioned. Never once did I hear him mention this-worldly things.’

    Wa'alaikoumsalaam
     
  14. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    as-Salaamu 'Alaikum and Eid Mubarak to everyone,

    TaqabbalAllahu Minna wa minkum!

    MashaaAllah! JazaakumAllahu Khairan for everyone's useful and beneficial response.

    As promised, our lessons are back after 'Eid. Let's pray that these lessons continue and that Allah blesses our efforts.

    For the benefit of those interested in studying Hanbali Fiqh, I thought it would be nice to introduce them to the Imam and Madhab, so I wrote something up very quickly regarding various aspects of the life of Imam Ahmad along with his Madhab - particularly for you brothers and sisters.

    Please have a read of the following link:
    http://www.islamicawakening.com/viewarticle.php?articleID=1193

    And now, on to the next Imam - Muwaffaq al-Din ibn Qudama, the author of al-Umdah...

    wasalam
     
  15. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    as-Salaamu 'Alaikum...

    Don't know where everyone has disappeared... But we would like these lessons to be a bit more interactive :)

    Anyone else would like to relate what they know about Ibn Qudama, so that we can actually get started with the book itself?:)

    wasalam
     
  16. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    'Umdat al-Fiqh [Introduction to the Book]

    [Text]
    <div align="right">بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    الحَمدُ ِللهِ، أَهلِ الحَمدِ وَ مُستَحَقِّهِ، حَمدًا يَفضُلُ عَلَى كُلِّ حَمد،ٍ كَفَضلِ اللهِ عَلَى خَلقِهِ. وأَشهَدُ أَن لا إِلهَ إلا الله وَحدَهُ لا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، شَهَادَةَ قَاِئمٍ للهِ بِحَقِّهِ، و أَشهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبدُهُ و رَسُولُهُ، غَيرَ مُرتَابٍ فِي صِدقِهِ، صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحبِهِ، مَا جَادَ سَحَابٌ بِوَدقِهِ، و مَا رَعَدَ بَعدَ بَرقِهِ.

    هذا كِتَابُ أَحكَامٍ فِي الفِقهِ، اختَصَرتُهُ حَسَبَ الإِمكَانِ، واقتَصَرتُ فِيهِ عَلَى قَولٍ وَاحِدٍ، لِيَكُونَ عُمدَةً لِقَارِئِهِ، و لا يَلتَبِسَ عَلَيهِ الصَوَابُ بِاختِلافِ الُوجُوهِ وَ الرِّوَايَاتِ.

    سَأَلَنِي بَعضُ أَصحَابِنَا تَلخِيصَهُ، لِيَقرُبَ عَلَى المُتَعَلِّمِينَ، ويَسهُلَ حِفظُهُ عَلَى الطَالِبِينَ، فَأَجبتُهُ إِلَى ذَلِكَ، مُعتَمِدًا على اللهِ سُبحَانَهُ فِي إِخلاصِ القَصدِ لِوَجهِهِ الكَرِيمِ، و المَعُونَةِ على الوُصُولِ إلى رِضوَانِهِ العَظِيمِ و هُوَ حَسبُنَا و نِعمَ الوَكِيل. و أَودَعتُهُ أَحَادِيثَ صَحِيحَةً تَبَرُّكًا بِهَا واعتِمَادًا عَلَيهَا و جَعَلتُهَا مِنَ الصِّحَاحِ لأَستَغنِيَ عَن نِسبَتِهَا إِلَيهَا.
    </div>

    [Translation]
    In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

    Praise be to Allah, the one who truly deserves the praise. The praise which is favoured over all other praises, just as Allah is favoured over His creation. I bear witness, fulfilling His Right, that there is no one worthy of worship but Allah alone who has no partner. I also bear witness, without doubting the truthfulness of Muhammad, that he is His servant and His Messenger; may Allah's peace be upon Him, his family and his companions, for as long as clouds rain and the lightening thunders.

    This is a book pertaining to the rulings of Fiqh, which I abridged wherever possible, and confined it to one opinion, so that it serves as a foundation for the reader and that the correct opinion is not mixed up with the various Wujuh and Riwayat.

    Some of our scholars asked us to summarise it, so that it becomes simple to understand for the learners, and easy to memorise for the students. Thus, I responded to that, relying upon Allah Subhaanahu, in purifying my intention in seeking His Face and his aid in reaching His great pleasure, and He is all sufficient for us, the best disposer of affairs. I also mentioned authentic Ahadeeth, seeking their blessings and depending on them, which I chose from authentic collections, so that I wouldn't need to reference them to various collections.

    Explanation:
    alHamdulillah, truly all praises are due to Allah. We praise Him, seek His assistance and ask for His guidance in all affairs.

    The Sheikh introduces his book by praising Allah and bearing witness to Allah's right of worship and the Prophet's right of be followed and obeyed.

    * The Sheikh then says: "This is a book pertaining to the rulings of Fiqh", referring to this book, which is called 'Umdat al-Fiqh, or The Foundations of Fiqh, where 'Fiqh' is the Islamic jurisprudence.

    This book is often confused with the book 'Umdat al-Ahkam by 'Abdul-Ghani al-Maqdisi. However, the difference between the two books, apart from the name and the authors, is that 'Umdat al-Ahkam is a book in Fiqh al-Hadeeth, where as 'Umdat al-Fiqh is a book in Fiqh itself.

    What is the difference between Fiqh and Fiqh al-Hadeeth? Well, both of them are two different approaches to studying Fiqh. A book in Fiqh usually consists of a Matn (a text) which is written as a conclusion of various legal proofs, which is then explained in the light of legal proofs; whereas a book in Fiqh al-Hadeeth usually consists of Ahadeeth, arranged in chapters of Fiqh, which is then usually explained in the form of comparative Fiqh. An example of a book in Fiqh is the book we are studying here, 'Umdat al-Fiqh, with various Shuruh (explanations); while an example of a book in Fiqh al-Hadeeth, apart from 'Umdat al-Ahkam, is Muntaqa al-Akhbar by Majd Ibn Taymiyah (Sheikh al-Islam's grand father), and its famous Sharh Nail al-Awtar by al-Shawkani.

    * The Sheikh says about the book that he: "…abridged wherever possible, and confined it to one opinion, so that it serves as a foundation for the reader and that the correct opinion is not mixed up with the various Wujuh and Riwayat."

    It has been a traditional practise amongst the students to start from the basics before they engross themselves in disputed Fiqhi issues. Hence, Ibn Qudama put this book together and confined himself to just one opinion in all issues, particularly for the beginners. For those who finish this book, he put together another book called al-Muqni', where he mentions the difference of opinion in issues but confined to the Madhab only. After al-Muqni' he put together al-Kafi aimed at training a student in how to deduce laws; and after that he put together al-Mughni – his masterpiece in comparative Fiqh for advanced students.

    This shows that the one who hasn't finished something as basic as 'Umdat al-Fiqh, hasn't gone past the beginner's level, and he is most definitely not competent enough to speak about issues differed over in the Madhab (known as al-Khilaf al-Madhabi), let alone issues that are differed over by various Madhabs (which is known as al-Khilaf al-'Aali). In fact, one of the most dangerous practises many of us get involved in is jumping to the roof without climbing the ladder; and that is by going straight for voluminous books such as al-Mugni, before we have finished something as basic as al-'Umdah. Such type of students, show a lot of enthusiasm in the beginning, however, it most usually wears out only after the first few chapters, and they remain ignorant of the rest 98% of the Sharee'ah.

    Therefore, please adhere to the advice of scholars. Start with a small Matn (text), and don't worry about the difference of opinion, until you have consolidated your knowledge in the basics of Fiqh.

    The Sheikh then mentions two of the important terminologies specific to the Hanbalis, and they are: al-Wujuh and al-Riwayat.

    'Al-Wujuh' is the plural for al-Wajh which means an opinion, whereas 'al-Riwayat' is the plural for al-Riyawah which means a narration.

    Often the Hanbali scholars while dealing with various issues, state: "Such and such issue has two Riwayat from Ahmad" or "such and such is permissible in Wajh and Makruh in Wajh". Hence, it becomes important for the reader to know what they exactly mean by al-Riyawat and al-Wajh.

    Generally, an issue of Fiqh is either a) based on an explicit statement of Imam Ahmad, or b) not based on it.

    a) If it is based on an explicit text of Imam Ahmad, then the Hanbalis refer to it as a 'Nass' (explicit text), or by saying: 'wa 'anhu' (lit. meaning: according to a narration from him).

    For example:

    Al-'Asr is the middle prayer, and that is the Madhab, Imam Ahmad Nassa 'Alaihi (explicitly stated it).

    Or;

    During the prayer, the Musalli places his right hand over the left and places them under the navel in the Madhab, wa 'anhu (another narration from the Imam) above the navel, wa 'anhu he has a choice in both of the aforementioned positions.

    These riwayat are called al-Riwayat al-Mutlaqah (i.e. explicit narrations)

    b) In issues of Fiqh where no explicit statement of the Imam is found, the Hanbalis extracted opinions from the explicit statements of the Imam in resembling issues. However, they differed amongst themselves, as to the extracted opinions based on the opinions of Imam Ahmad, are they in fact his Madhab or not?

    Those of the Hanbalis who regarded their extracted opinions to be the Madhab of Imam Ahmad, called this type: al-Riwayah al-Mukharrajah (i.e. extracted narrations).

    As for those who did not regard it to be the Madhab of Imam Ahmad, called this type Wujuh.

    For example: The one who uses gold and silver utensils to make Wudhu, there are two Wajhs with regards to the validity of such Wudhu.

    * The Sheikh then says: "Some of our scholars asked us to summarise it, so that it becomes simple to understand for the learners, and easy to memorise for the students".

    Hence, I would strongly encourage the brothers and sisters to memorise as much as they can. As Sh Ibn Uthaimeen said that the way a student benefits from a text he memorises cannot be compared to the benefit gained by simply reading it even with deep understanding.

    * The Sheikh finally says: "I also mentioned authentic Ahadeeth, seeking their blessings and depending on them, which I chose from authentic collections, so that I wouldn't need to reference them to various collections"

    This is from the beauty of this book as in every chapter he mentions an authentic Hadeeth of the Prophet SallAllahu 'alaihi wasallam, which serves as a basis for that particular chapter, in order to instil in the hearts of students the love for Sunnah of the Prophet SallAllahu 'alaihi wa-sallam.

    You may post your questions or comments below, InshaaAllah.
     
  17. Unspecified

    Unspecified New Member

    JazakAllaahu khair...

    It would be useful to have an print option by which we could print off a copy of a specific post...
     
  18. Expergefactionist

    Expergefactionist hmmm... Staff Member

    I hope the printer button just added to the top helps...

    wasalam
     
  19. Abu Ilyas

    Abu Ilyas New Member

    Jazakhallah Khair,

    How many chapters does the book consist of?

    Was Salaam
     
  20. kepik

    kepik New Member

    Assalamualaykum wr wb

    I just registered in the fiqh class. I'd like to obtain a copy of the book that is recommended for this class. I can easily find this book in any online islamic bookstore. But all of those books are written in arabic. I cannot find a single english translation of this book out there. I was wondering if anyone know any publisher that has published the english translation of this book and where possibly i can get them ( I live in USA btw). Thank you so much

    Wassalamualaykum wr wb
     

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